Hybrid Tea Roses
Hybrid tea is an informal horticultural classification for a group of roses. It is the oldest group classified as a modern garden rose. They appear in many shades and hues and are thoroughly reliable, enduring much cold with ordinary protection, developing luxuriantly great masses of flowers that possess wondrous fragrance.
Hybrid Teas are the result of crosses between the Hybrid Perpetual and Tea Roses. They partake the hardiness of perpetuals and the beauty and delicacy of the Tea Roses. The foliage is deeper green and more highly toned with bronze and brown that of the Hybrid Perpetuals. The flowers appear with the same freedom as those of the Teas, affording a season of almost perpetual bloom. Hybrid Tea flowers are well-formed with large, high-centred buds, supported by long, straight and upright stems. Each flower can grow to 8-12.5cm (3-5 inch) wide. Some of the most remarkable specimens of the whole Rose family belong to this group and for years enthusiastic growers have been introducing new varieties. The fact that their flowers are usually borne singly at the end of long stems, makes them popular as cut flowers. A signature of hybrid teas is the long, pointed buds that open by slowly unfurling.
Plants will grow anywhere from 1-2m (3-6 feet) tall, depending on the variety and the growing conditions.
Recommended Hybrid Tea cultivars:
Rosa ‘Chrysler Imperial’ is a strongly fragrant, dark red hybrid tea rose cultivar. It is stock parents ‘Charlotte Armstrong’ (cerise pink) and ‘Mirandy’ (dark oxblood red). The elegantly tapered buds open into high-centered blossoms with a diameter of about 11–13cm (4-5 inch) and can have up to 45-50 petals (which is a high number for a hybrid tea rose) with a rich, deep, velvety red color. The cultivar flushes in a chronological blooming pattern throughout its local season, starting in late spring until fall. The long-stemmed rose flowers are long lasting and showy and make excellent cut flowers.
The rose bush reaches 75 to 200cm (30 to 72 inch) height and a diameter of 60 to 120cm (24-48 inch). The shrub has an upright form with very thorny canes and semi-glossy dark green foliage. It is not a cold hardy rose (hardiness zone 6b through 9b) and needs good sun exposure. Without good air circulation it is susceptible to mildew and blackspot, particularly in cool climates.
Rosa ‘Double Delight’ is a hybrid tea rose cultivar bred. The plant grows about 90 to 150cm (35-59 inch) high, blooms repeatedly and has strongly fragrant white flowers with dark red edges. The flowers have up to 30 petals. Hardiness zone: 5b through 10b.
Rosa ‘Elina’ (synonyms ‘DICjana’ and ‘Peaudouce’) is a light yellow Hybrid Tea. The variety was developed from the cultivars ‘Nana Mouskouri’ × ‘Lolita’. Its mildly fragrant flowers are high centered, reach an average diameter of 15 cm (6 inch) and appear in flushes throughout the season. Their colour is weather dependent and can reach from lemon to ivory. The rose bush has dense, glossy foliage and usually grows to a height of 100 to 120 cm (3947 inch) and a width of 75 to 80 cm (30-31 inch). ‘Elina’ is only moderately winter hardy (USDA zone 7b), but excepting in humid conditions Mildew very disease resistant.
Rosa ‘Angel Face’ is a large flowered hybrid tea rose. It is a cross between (‘Circus’ × ‘Lavender Pinocchio’) × ‘Sterling Silver’. In certain sunlight it is possible to detect a faint silvery sheen as a hint of its parentage. The fragrance of this rose is a sweet fruity scent. It is as appealing as its lavender colour. It has 8cm (3 inch), lavender ruffled-edge blossoms, edged in an attractive deeper ruby. Often grow on single stems as well as in clusters.
‘Angel Face’ is an upright, bushy plant with lustrous foliage and a neat 1m (3 feet) tall and -wide form. It is a good rose to use as a cut flower, both for its beauty and its deep fragrance. It is a compact growing plant, and blooms abundantly. It does best in full sun and any well-drained soil. It is hardy in zones 5-9.
Rosa ‘Mister Lincoln’ is a large flowered (Hybrid Tea) bush Rose. This tall red rose is renowned for its strong fragrance (in still air it can be detected up to 3m (10 feet) away) and its deep, uniform red color. It grows to about 1.2m (4 feet) high and 1m (3 feet) across. The leaves are mat dark green. The buds are deep red and open up into large, velvety red, double blossoms. It has typically around 30 to 35 petals per flower. It is a vigorous plant that performs well in all climates. Mister Lincoln is hardy to zone 5-9.
Rosa ‘Madame A. Meilland’ (called Rosa Peace) is a Hybrid Tea Rose with large flowers of a light yellow to cream color, slightly flushed at the petal edges with crimson-pink. It is hardy and vigorous and relatively resistant to disease, making it popular in gardens as well as in the floral trade.
Rose ‘Jeanne Moreau’ is a white or white blend Hibrid Tea Rose. It has a strong, lemon fragrance. The flower has 90 to 100 petals with an average diameter 12cm (5 inch). The bloom opens into a beautiful rounded rosette. It blooms in flushes throughout the season.
These roses are 80 to 90cm (32-35 inch) tall. The vase life of these Roses is between 3 to 7 days depending of environment conditions. They are great for wedding floral work.
Hardiness zone is 6b through 9b.
Rose ‘Paradise’ (synonyms ‘Burning Sky’) has striking pink-mauve blooms with each petal flushed with deep rose pink. The colour changes with the temperature. The mauve crimson edging is the strongest in hot weather. However, the lavender lilac hue fades slightly in the sun. Its parentage ‘Angel Face’ Rose x ‘Swarthmore’ Rose. This lovely old Hybrid Tea is renowned as being one of the most free-flowering bush roses as from one bush, trim a whole bucket full of long-stemmed, perfect flowers and still leave some on the bush. ‘Paradise’ flowers have more than 25 petals and the graceful, long pointed buds open slowly with beautifully shaped petals that curl back at the edges, making this rose always very showy and eye-catching. There is a light fragrance, especially on a warm day. The canes are quite thorny. The growing habit is upright and sturdy. The bush produces lovely thick, strong shoots from the crown, the foliage is dark matt green and the new growth is dark, dark red. Grows up to 1.5m (5 feet) in height. Its hardiness zone is 5 through 11.
Rosa ‘Friendship’ is a deep pink hybrid tea rose with strong fragrance. Parentage: ‘Fragrant Cloud’ X Miss All-American Beauty. The bloom is 15cm (6 inch) in diameter and has 25 to 35 petals. This Rose has very large, double, borne mostly solitary or cluster-flowered, in small clusters, cupped-to-flat bloom form. Blooms in flushes throughout the season. The flower has large, long sepals forming ovoid buds.
Hardiness zone 7b and warmer. It can be used for beds and borders, cut flower or garden. It is a vigorous Rose, its flowers dropping off cleanly. This Rose require spring pruning: Remove old canes and dead or diseased wood and cut back canes that cross. In warmer climates, cut back the remaining canes by about one-third. In colder areas, probably have to be pruned a little more than that. Requires spring freeze protection .
Rosa ‘Moonstone’ has white or white blend, pink edges petals. Parentage: Crystalline X Lynn Anderson. The flowers are ivory white with a fine, delicate pink edging. It has mild, spice, tea fragrance. There are 34 to 42 petals with a flower diameter of 12cm (4.75 inch). Large, double, borne mostly solitary, exhibition, high-centred to flat bloom form. Blooms in flushes throughout the season.
It is hardy to zone 7b and warmer. It can be used for beds and borders, cut flower or garden. It prefers dry climates and is very disease resistant. It require spring pruning: Remove old canes and dead or diseased wood and cut back canes that cross. In warmer climates, cut back the remaining canes by about one-third. In colder areas, probably will have to be pruned a little more than that. Requires spring freeze protection. Can be grown in the ground or in a container (container requires winter protection).
Choosing the right Hybrid Tea Rose: The key, as always, is to choose a Hybrid Tea variety suited for the climate and zone where they will be planted. Although if summers are humid, look for mildew resistance. Where summers are dry, look for heat tolerance and vigorous root systems.
Gardening: Most Hybrid Tea cultivars are not fully hardy in continental areas with very cold winters (below -25 °C). This, combined with their tendency to be stiffly upright, sparsely foliaged and often not resistant to diseases, has led to a decline in Hybrid Tea popularity among gardeners and landscapers in favor of lower-maintenance “landscape” roses. The Hybrid Tea remains the standard rose of the floral industry, however, and is still favored in small gardens in formal situations.
Position: Plant the Hybrid Tea Rose preferably sunny position or partial shade, in the fall or spring.
Soil: Hybrid Tea Roses require a soil that is loose and rich in organic matter. These Roses like a slightly acid soil (6.0 – 6,5 pH).
The Rose plants that come bare root should be removed from their packing around the roots and soak them in a bucket of water for at least 2 hours and up to 24 hours. Dig a hole large enough to spread out the roots, usually 30-45cm(12-18 inch) in diameter. Make a cone-shaped mound with soil, in the center of the hole and spread the roots out over the mound. As with many cultivated flowers, hybrid teas are bud grafted onto hardy, disease resistant root stock. The bud union is the visible knob at the base of the plant. In warm climates the bud union should be 3-5cm (1-2 inch) above soil level. In colder climates, bury the bud union 3-5cm (1-2 inch) below ground level. This union should always be protected in cold winters. Fill the hole half way with soil and water well to remove any air pockets. Finish filling with soil and water again. Once the rose is planted can be pruned the top growth.
Space the plants 45 to 90cm (18-36 inch) apart, depending on the growth habit, and keep them weed free.
Irrigation: As with most garden plants, 3 or 5cm (1-2 inch) of water a week is usually sufficient. Of course, this depends on climate and growing conditions. Hot locations and sandy soil will need more frequent watering than cool, coastal regions. If the top 8cm (3 inch) of soil are dry, it is time to water. Water deeply to encourage roots growth. Strong, deep roots will help the roses survive periods of drought.
Water the soil, not the leaves, to prevent disease.
Mulching the Roses will help to cool their roots and conserve water. Add a 8-10cm (3-4 inch) layer of mulch in the spring, when removing winter protection. In warm climates, mulch when the leaf buds begin to swell.
Fertilise: Hybrid tea roses, being repeat bloomers, are heavy feeders and benefit from regular applications of food. Start feeding these roses once a week or every other week in early spring either a month before new growth or when the winter protection is removed. Use a balanced fertiliser or one labeled for roses. Stop fertilising about 6 weeks before first expected frost date as the plants should go dormant.
Pruning: Pruning Hybrid Teas is not unlike pruning other Rose types. If the blossoms are regularly harvested, it will actually be less pruning to be done. When selecting Hybrid Teas, there are some of the thorn-less varieties. Thorn-less varieties make pruning easier.
Prune the Hybrid Teas in early spring, before new growth. First cut out anything dead, diseased or damaged canes. Cut out scrawny, spindly canes of less than 1cm (0.4 inch) in diameter. Prune remaining stronger canes by about a third of their length, down to 30-60cm (12-24 inch). Select four to six of the healthiest looking canes to retain. Remove the rest of the canes with the lopper, cutting as close to the graft union (a knot like growth on top of the main stem, close to the ground) as possible. If there are no dead canes, choose the oldest canes to remove and newer canes to retain. Hard pruning like this encourages strong stems and large flowers. Prune to open and shape the plant and allow the plant to put its energy into fewer flowers.
When cutting roses for vase, leave a few leaves on the stem to feed the plant.
Make cuts about 0.5cm (0.2 inch) above an outward facing bud. Cuts at a 45 degree angle, so that water runs off. Always use clean, sharp pruners to prevent damaging the rose canes and spreading disease.
Wintering: Winter weather in hardiness zones 6 and below can really challenge Rose bushes, particularly the Hybrid Teas.
Stop feeding and pruning the Roses around the end of summer, to discourage tender, new growth that will suffer from winter damage. Leave the last of the flowers on, to turn into hips. The hips are the rose’s seed pods. By producing seed pods, the Rose bush feels it is done for the season and can start to go dormant.
After the first frost, thoroughly water the soil around the rose bush. Once the ground freezes the bush has to take care of itself, so give it a good soaking going into winter.
Remove all fallen leaves to prevent diseases and insects from overwintering.
After a couple of hard freezes, mound 15-30cm (6-12 inch) of compost around the crown of the plant, to protect the roots and the graft union where the rose species is attached to a hardy root stock. The graft should be at or just below the soil surface. Also, the Rose may be circled with wire and this cage stuffed with leaves or mulch.
Climbing Roses are at risk from strong, drying winds. To protect the canes of canes of climbers, either wrap the canes together bundling something like straw on the outside for insulation or remove the canes from their trellis or support and lay them on the ground. Then tie the canes together and secure them to the ground with landscape pins. Protect with a layer of mulch.
Hardiness zones 7 and 8 always stand the chance of a freeze and maybe even some snow. The graft union would benefit from protection. Mounding with leaves or a shredded mulch should suffice. However, the rule about discontinuing pruning at the end of summer holds for zones 7 and 8 too.
In zone 9 and above, where roses wold not be subject to freezing temperatures, watch for fungal diseases that can creep in with the cooler, wet weather. Since the roses are still growing and setting buds, early winter is a good time for a light feeding. Prune after the plants bloom in winter.
Remove protective mulch in the spring.
Propagation: This is usually done by budding, a technique that involves grafting buds from a parent plant onto strongly growing rootstocks. For this, a bud is removed from the parent plant and the base of the bud is inserted beneath the bark of the stem of the stalk plant from which the rest of the shoot has been cut. Any extra bud that starts growing out from the stem of the stalk plant is removed because that would bear the flower of the unwanted original kind.
Hybrid tea cultivars bred in continental areas (e.g. Canada) tend to be hardier than those hailing from more maritime regions (e.g. New Zealand).
Judging criteria of Hybrid Tea Roses: Here are the criteria Hybrid Teas are judged by. Each quality is graded on a specified number of points with the highest combined total of all points being 100.
- Most important features: shape or form and color.
- Then comes substance: freshness and sheen.
- Other considerations rated: balance and proportions; size; stems and foliage.
Companion plants: Artemisia, Geranium species, Lavandula spica (Lavender) and Nepeta species work well as partners with hybrid teas.
Uses and display: Hybrid teas are grown for their blossoms, not their landscape appeal. They can work unexpectedly well in a border, especially with a low growing perennial covering their gangly stems.
Cutting flowers: Hybrid Tea Roses are used as cut flowers for their scent and beautiful and elegant shape. Harvest the Hybrid Tea Roses flower in late afternoon. Chooses rose buds that have already begun to open, but that are no more than 1/3 to 1/2 fully open. Remove all leaves that would be below the water line. Get the roses into water as soon as possible. Re-cut on an angle with clean and sharp blade at lest 2cm (0.8 inch) of stems either underwater or immediately plunge them into a vase with water. Use either a floral preservative or add a splash of a lemon soda or even a squeeze of lemon and a tablespoon of sugar to the water in the vase. Change the water whenever it starts to get dirty re-cutting again the stem. Let the cut Roses have a few hours in a cool spot out of direct sunshine before displaying them. This conditioning extends their vase life. Longevity in vase varies greatly among cultivars, usually from 4 to 12 days and is highly dependent on their growing environment; how they are handled and cared for; and their maturity.
Fragrance is often inversely proportionate to vase life: The stronger the scent, the shorter the vase life, and vice-versa. Today, most cut hybrid tea roses are bred for vase life.
If the Roses seem to be wilting, water is not able to flow through the stem. Re-cut the stem bottoms and submerge them in very warm, (not hot) water and let them sit for about an hour before replacing them in the vase.