Author Archive

Calathea makoyana

Common name: Peacock Plant, Cathedral Windows, Brain Plant, Calathea Peacock

Family: Marantaceae

Synonymous: Calathea olivaris
Goeppertia makoyana
Maranta iconifera
Maranta makoyana
Maranta olivaris
Phyllodes mackoyana

Calathea makoyana

Calathea makoyana

Distribution and habitat: Calathea makoyana is a species of evergreen perennial native to eastern Brazil, occurring in the undergrowth of the tropical forests. It grows from a thick rhizome and reaches a height of 30-50cm (12-20 inch). In their native environment, the soils are sandy and seasonally moist, not consistently wet.

Description: Calathea makoyana is a tropical plant with decorative foliage. Although the leaves may seem to rise directly from the root stock, they are normally connected to short multi-trunked or clumping stems. It has roughly oval leaves 25-30cm (10-12 inch) long on 25-30cm (10-12 inch) long stalks and they turn slightly to display the pinkish-maroon underside as well as the green upper surface. Both surfaces have very fine lines running from the central vein in a V-shape to the leaf edges, along with elliptic patches dark green on the upper surface and deep maroon on the underside. The new leaves are rolled up when they emerge and are pinkish-red on the undersides.
Flowers may be seen peeping through pale green bracks on mature plants, but they are insignificant. They are white and appear periodically throughout the year.
The Calathea makoyana plants will reach their maturity and ultimate height in an interval between 5 to 10 years.

Hoseplant care: Typically tropical, Calathea makoyana need heat and humidity and shade from direct sunlight. Remove the dying or discoloured leaves.

Light: Calathea makoyana prefers medium light – for example at a tree-shaded window. Bright light is often the cause of spoiling the foliage.
Move the plant outdoor in the spring and summer, bringing them indoors in autumn.

Temperature: A temperature ranging between 16°C (60°F) and 21°C (70°F) is ideal. In warmer rooms high humidity is essential and the foliage should be mist-sprayed daily. Rainwater is excellent for this, since it leaves no unsightly white lime deposit.

Watering: During the active growth period water plants plentifully – as often as necessary to keep the potting mixture thoroughly moist. In the rest period water moderately, enough to make the potting mixture moist, but allow the top centimetre (0.4 inch) or so of the potting mixture to dry out between waterings. Use water at room temperature.

Feeding: Calathea makoyana should be given generous amounts of standard liquid fertiliser every two weeks during the active growth period. Additional, foliar fertiliser with nitrogen or iron content can be used if the foliage colour needs improvement.

Potting and repotting: Add up to one third leaf mould or peat moss to a soil based potting mixture. In later case, however, the mixture must be kept constantly supplied with application of liquid fertiliser when plants are in active growth. Healthy plants need to be moved into pots one size larger every year – which should preferably take place in late spring or early summer.

Gardening: Calathea makoyana can be grown outdoors in warm, sheltered, frost free climate in draught-free conditions.
The dead leaves should be pruned away.

Position: Bright or direct light will cause the leaves to appear washed out. Calathea makoyana plants need shade from full sun, but can stand a little morning sun.
Very low light will cause leaf colour to pale.

Soils: Calathea makoyana thrive in well-drained acidic soils and will grow in clay, sand or loam soils as long as they are given sufficient organic material. Amend garden soil with organic matter such as compost and ground bark to enhace both drainage and water-holding capacity.
Keep the plants mulched with 3cm (1 inch) of organic matter such as ground bark. Work the mulch into the bad as it rots and replace it with fresh one.
Space the plants 30cm (12 inch) apart in beds.

Irrigation: Water only as the soil begins to dry. Water thoroughly, keep soil evenly moist to touch (not saturated). Do not allow plants to sit in water. In winter, water only when the soil becomes dry and do not soak the soil to avoid root rot.
Prepare to water outdoor plantings very regularly, using shaker hoses or dip irrigation.

Fetiliser: Feed with a liquid fertiliser every two weeks during spring and summer and once a month during autumn and winter. Do not fertilise the plant too often as overfertilising may cause leaf spots.

Propagation: In late spring divide any overcrowded clumps of Calathea makoyana, making sure that some roots remain on each part. Plant the sections in 8cm (3 inch) pots of moistened standard mixture, enclose them in plastic bags and keep them in medium light. Remove the plastic bag when the new roots have formed on the sections.

Brown tips or edges on leaves indicate low humidity, fluoride in water or too much fertilizer.
Treatment: Increase the humidity around plants by placing the pots on trays of moistened pebbles. Use only soft water to water the plant or to spray the foliage. Flush the pot with water to wash the potting mixture from fertiliser surplus.

Plants do not thrive in low humidity where leaves may roll or brown up.
Treatment: Increase the humidity around plants by placing the pots on trays of moistened pebbles. Additionally mist-spray the plants with soft water. Water the plant adequatelly in high temperatures.

New leaves that are lighter in color are not getting enough nitrogen or iron.
Treatment: If the fertiliser does not contain nitrogen and iron nutrients, use a foliar spray that lists these nutrients on their label. Improvements should appear within a few weeks.

Calathea makoyana plants tend to be vulnerable to root rot.
Treatment: Avoid constantly wet soil. Water the plants only when necessary as recommended.

Spider mites are common plant pests of the Calathea makoyana plant. Signs of an infestation include bronzing, flecking or scorching of leaves. Once injured, the leaves will fall off and the plant may die if the infestation is not controlled.
Treatment: To control spider mites, ensure the plant has adequate water. Occasionally hose the dust off leaf surfaces to remove and kill spider mites. For heavier infestations use suitable miticides, but these do not affect the eggs and must be repeated in two-week intervals until the mites are under control.

Watch for aphids and scale insects.
Treatment: Remove the scale insects by gently scraping them off. Aphids should be removed by hand. Isolate plants that show signs of insect pest infestation to prevent infestation of other plants.

Slugs and snails may damage the beautiful foliage of these plants.
Treatment: These pests are controlled using an appropriate molluscicide, both pellet and liquid forms or by hand pick at regular inspections.

Bacterial diseases which may affect Calathea makoyana plant is Pseudomonas leaf spot.
Fungal diseases which may affect Calathea makoyana plant are Alternaria leaf spot, Fusarium root rot and Helminthosporium leaf spot.
Parasitic nematodes which may affect Calathea makoyana plant are Burrowing and Root-knot.
Viral diseases which may affect Calathea makoyana plant is Mosaic.
Treatment: Prevent and treat most fungal and bacterial diseases with a broad spectrum bio-fungicide which uses a patented strain of Bacillus subtilis that is registered for organic use. Isolate or discard affected plants to contain the diseases. Sanitize the soil and containers of the affected plants.

Note: Calatheas are closely related to marantas and species from the two genera are often confused.

Companion plants: Calathea makoyana plant is excellent in combinations with Burbidgea scheizocheila (Golden Brush Ginger) and cane Begonia species and looks sweet beneath Medinilla magnifica (Malaysian Orchids) and Rhapis excelsa (Lady Palms). It will work good when planted with Orchid, Aglaonema or Bromeliad species.

Uses and display: The handsome leaves of Calathea makoyana plant are the attraction for tropical gardeners and indoor plant lovers as well. These warm climate plants will grow well under taller plants in their dappled shade or under trees. They will make a wonderful ground cover foliage in shaded positions.
Also, this plant is perfect for home or office if humidity can be provided. It is perfect for all kinds of containers and is very decorative on a small table or in a hanging basket. Calathea makoyana plant are mostly used for sub-tropical patio planting or as container plants. They look best when grouped with other foliage plants. Also, as these plants need high humidity and are relatively small in size, they can be used in a bottle garden or terrarium.


Foliage – variegate
Shape – bushy
Height: 30-50cm (12-20 inch)
Spread: 45-60cm (18-24 inch)

Watering in rest period – moderately
Watering in active growth period – plentifully
Light – medium
Temperature in rest period – min 16°C max 21°C (61-70°F)
Temperature in active growth period – min 16°C max 21°C (61-70°F)
Humidity – high

Hardiness zone: 10a-11

Calathea makoyana leafCalathea makoyana Calathea makoyana Calathea makoyana flowersCalathea makoyana

Evergreen, Foliage Plants, Garden Plants, Indoor Plants , , , , , , , , , ,

Calanthe triplicata

Common name: Christmas Orchid

Family: Orchidaceae

Synonymous: Orchis triplicata (Basionym)
Alismorkis angraeciflora
Alismorkis diploxiphion
Alismorkis furcata
Alismorkis gracillima
Alismorkis veratrifolia
Amblyglottis veratrifolia
Bletia quadrifida
Calanthe angraeciflora
Calanthe australasica
Calanthe bracteosa
Calanthe brevicolumna
Calanthe catilligera
Calanthe celebica
Calanthe comosa
Calanthe diploxiphion
Calanthe furcata
Calanthe furcata f. albolineata
Calanthe furcata f. albomarginata
Calanthe furcata f. brevicolumna
Calanthe gracillima
Calanthe matsumurana
Calanthe veratrifolia var. stenochila

Calanthe triplicata

Calanthe triplicata

Distribution and habitat: Calanthe triplicata is a species of terrestrial orchid native to Oceania, Asia and the islands of eastern Africa. This orchid is found growing in humus rich soils of rainforest shaded floors, near creeks, at elevations of 500 to 1500m (1640-4921 feet). These perennials reach heights of 40 to 100cm (16-39 inch).
The name ‘Calanthe’ is derivated from the Greek ‘kalos’ meaning beautiful and ‘anthos’ meaning flowers.

Description: Calanthe triplicata is an attractive evergreen, large orchid. The leaves are deep green, strongly ribbed and grow up to 50cm (20 inch) long and 15cm (6 inch) wide. Each orchid have a number of 4 to 10 leaves per shoot arising from a fleshy conical pseudobulb. It retains its leaves for several years. The nodding, spurred flowers that grow in one or two flower speaks on long, erect steams. The racemes are bearing cluster of 18 to 40 large white flowers about 5cm (2 inch) across with yellow or orange calli. The petals and sepals are narrow and equal in size, while the lip is several lobed. The characteristic features of Calanthe is the union of the column with the lip. The flowers will last 3-4 weeks. They are turning blue-black when damaged and with age.  The fruit is a capsule 3-4cm (1-1.5 inch) long.
Calanthe triplicata orchid blooms from fall through winter with multiple successively opening flowers.
The list of Calanthe triplicata synonymous can be longer.

Houseplant care: Calanthe triplicata is an orchids whose cultivation conditions are very easy to follow as this orchid is not sensitive to overwatering as other orchid species. In addition, its deep green leaves are decorative when the orchid is not in bloom.
A weekly sponging of leaves is advisable for Calanthe triplicata orchids grown indoors. Remove the spent flowers and leaves as they form.

Light: Provide Calanthe triplicata with bright filtered light at all times.

Temperature: Normal room temperature should be suitable throughout the year. Ideal temperature range for the active growth period is 15-27°C (59-81°F) and for the rest period 10-21°C (50-70°F). It is an intermediate orchid grower. Ensure that a high level of humidity is retained. To do this stand the pots on trays of moist pebbles and mist-spray these orchids daily.
Good ventilation is strongly recommended to avoid rot due to high moisture levels required by these orchids, but drafts should be avoided. Do not place them near vents.

Watering: In general the rule is plentiful watering for these types of evergreen orchids, especially during the summer months. During the rest period, after flowering is finished, give them only enough water to keep the potting mixture from drying out completely.

Feeding: Calanthe triplicata orchids need regular and generous feeding, thriving on a rich compost and application of liquid fertiliser about once every two weeks during the growing season.

Potting and repotting: The potting mixture for Calanthe triplicata orchids should be a rich one, preferably incorporating peat moss and treated hardwood sawdust with some blood and bone added (about one heaped dessertspoon to a 15cm (6 inch) pot). These orchids do not need repotting every year, once every thee years will suffice. When potting Calanthe triplicata, the pseudobulbs must be half buried into the potting media.
Grow Calanthe triplicata orchids in pretty big pots 15cm (6 inch) pot) with a fairly wide base or, eventually, provide weight and stability as they grow quite tall.

Gardening: Calanthe triplicata orchids need shelter from excessive hot sun and protection from frost. They grow well as a pot plant.

Position: Calanthe triplicata will withstand direct sun but prefers shade. Place it where will receive filtered sunlight only until mid-morning, remaining in full shade for the rest of the day.

Soil: In the wild, this evergreen orchid grows best in light well – drained soils and is often found where there is an accumulation of leaf litter. Calanthe triplicata thrives in well drained but moist soils rich in organic matter and well mulched. It is best in pots planted in orchid compost.

Irrigation: Calanthe triplicata is native to climates with heavy rainfall almost all year round. Therefor these orchids species will require regular watering. As they are evergreen species, they do not really have a rest period and should be watered throughout the year as long as the temperatures are not falling below 15°C (59°F). This orchid can become deciduous; if water is reduced in the autumn and the plant is kept cool the leaves may drop. It will resprout in the spring. If the temperature is a bit warmer and it retains the leaves, keep it slightly moist through the winter.

Fertiliser: Feed active growing Calanthe triplicata orchids with liquid fertiliser every two weeks. Overfertilising will produce soft, lush growth at the expense of flowers.

Propagation: Propagation of Calanthe triplicata orchids is by division. Divide and repot pseudobulbs in the spring after flowering. To do this separate the older pseudobulbs from the main plant, place them in a slightly moist potting mixture and wait for the new shoots to appear from the base of the pseudobulbs.

Calanthe plants are susceptible to spider mites, so it is important to provide ample humidity with air movement.
Treatment: Spray the infested orchids with a suitable insecticide and raise the humidity by standing the pot on a saucer of moist pebbles.

Scale insects and mealy bugs sometimes attack these plants, lurking in particular under the dried-up leaves on pseudobulbs and at the base of old flower stalks after these have been cut back.
Treatment: Physically removing the scales and then controlling the immature stages with chemical sprays may help lightly infested plants. Use an adequate pesticide to combat the insects infestation.

Slugs and snails like them so watch out.
Treatment: These pests are controlled using an appropriate molluscicide, both pellet and liquid forms, or by hand pick at regular inspections.

Note: Calanthe triplicata common name is Christmas Orchid because it is flowering during the Christmas in its southern hemisphere.  So, basically they flower during the summer months. The rest period for this orchid is winter period triggered by cold weather and short daylight. If the orchids are kept in warm environment, they are evergreen orchids so watering should be not be retained.

Availability: Calanthe triplicata are very popular hobby orchid in Asia and North America.

Uses and display: Grown mainly in pots, Calanthe triplicata can also work well in sheltered, shady rock gardens – as much for its foliage as for its flowers. This orchid suits tropical, cottage and bush design gardens. It can be grown in pot or hanging basket as accent or border plant. It thrives in shadehouse conditions – so pop it on the floor. Also this orchid is suited to growing outdoors in pots or as a landscape plant in tropical and sub-tropical climates. In landscape, it needs to be plant it in semi-shaded moist situation such as under a tree.


Foliage – green
Features – flowers
Shape – upright
Height: 40-100cm (16-39 inch)

Watering in rest period – sparingly
Watering in active growth period – plentifully
Light – bight filtered
Temperature in rest period – min 7oC max 21oC (45-70oF)
Temperature in active growth period – min 16oC max 27oC (61-81oF)
Humidity – high

Hardiness zone: 10-12

Calanthe triplicata Calanthe triplicata

Cutting Flowers, Environments, Flowering Plants, Garden Plants, Indoor Plants, Orchids , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Bryophyllum daigremontianum

Common name: Mother of Thousands, Alligator Plant, Mexican Hat Plant, Devil’s Backbone

Family: Crassulaceae

Synonymous: Kalanchoe daigremontiana

Bryophyllum daigremontianum

Bryophyllum daigremontianum

Distribution and habitat: Bryophyllum daigremontianum is a succulent perennial plant native to the Fiherenana River valley and Androhibolava mountains in southwest Madagascar. It has been introduced to numerous tropical and subtropical regions, such as Florida, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, parts of the Canary Islands and Australia. Like other members of the genus Bryophyllum, it is able to propagate vegetatively from plantlets (epiphyllous buds) that develop on the leaf edges. The plantlets that grow on the edges of each leaf fall easily and root wherever they land.
It is commonly found growing on gravelly and sandy soils. This succulent plant is a weed of bushland and disturbed sites such as roadsides, along fence lines, around rubbish tips and abandoned rural dwellings. It also occurs frequently along creeks and rivers where it is spread by floodwaters.

Description: Bryophyllum daigremontianum grows from a single unbranched stem 45-90cm (18-35 inch) tall, which carries opposite pairs of fleshy, shiny, lance-shaped leaves that are 10-25cm (4-10 inch) long. The leaves grow at an 8° angle to the stem and are bluish green with purple blotched undersides. The saw-toothed leaf edges curl slightly inward. The tiny plantlets that form in the gaps between the teeth often have tiny aerial roots attached. One leaf can carry as many as 50 such plantlets in a single season. Pink flowers, which bloom only on mature plant, are roughly tubular, 2cm (0.8 inch) long and pendent. They are carried in rather flat clusters at the top of 30cm (12 inch) tall stalks in late autumn and early winter. The plant dies after blooming. Flowering is, however, not an annual event and will occur sporadically if at all. Particularly in climates with distinct seasonal temperature differences, flowering is most frequently observed at the beginning of a warm season.
Bryophyllum daigremontianum take a year or two to mature.

Houseplant care: Bryophyllum daigremontianum requires minimal care and can tolerate dry conditions and high temperatures. It is an unusual, fast growing succulent.

Light: These plants like bright light; do not subject them to direct sunlight.

Temperature: Bryophyllum daigremontianum thrive in normal room temperature.

Watering: During the active growth period water moderately, but allow the top centimetre (0.4 inch) or so of the potting mixture to dry out between waterings. In the rest period water sparingly.

Feeding: Apply standard liquid fertiliser once a month during the active growth period.

Potting and repotting: Use a soil based potting mixture. Move small plants into pots one size larger every spring. A Bryophyllum daigremontianum big enough to need 15cm (6 inch) pot is usually unshapely and best discarded.

Gardening: Bryophyllum daigremontianum is not frost-hardy and typically dies if subjected to temperatures below freezing. Within its hardiness zone, Bryophyllum daigremontianum have the potential to escape from cultivation and spread into natural environments becoming a problematic weed. Therefore, precaution have to be taken when grow these plants in garden.
Newly transplanted Bryophyllum daigremontianum have the tendency to wilt. It is recommended to stake the taller ones to keep them growing straight until their roots are reestablished; these plants can be also planted deeper than the original root to give more support and promote more root growth. They will soon resume their growth.

Position: Plant Bryophyllum daigremontianum in full sun or partial shade. Leaves will develop a pinkish-red colour with lots of light, or will stay a greener coluor under less bright conditions.
It is very heat resistant, if planted in shade.

Soil: Bryophyllum daigremontianum thrive in well draining, sandy soil. The plants establish well in leaf litter or other debris on shallow soils.
Space the plants 15-25cm (6–10 inch) apart to make room for the leaves to display their plantlets.
To promote new plants, do not mulch the ground around Bryophyllum daigremontianum. The plantlets which loosen from the plant will grow much better if allowed to fall directly onto soil rather than onto mulch.

Irrigation: Water well when plant the Bryophyllum daigremontianum. After that these plants can be neglected or if watered, do so no more than once or twice a week. These succulent plants are adapted to dry conditions and can survive long periods of drought.

Fertilising: Use a water soluble fertiliser on Bryophyllum daigremontianum plants, following the directions given by the manufacturer.

Propagation: Plantlets growing at the base of the plants may be dug up at any time, replanted in 5-8cm (2-3 inch) pots of standard potting mixture and treated as mature plants. Or plantlets may be picked from the leaves and shallowly planted in standard potting mixture.

Problems: Bryophyllum daigremontianum is generally problem free, but their succulent leaves are a great attraction for insects like mealy bugs, scale or aphids.
Treatment: Control mealy bugs by wiping the infested leaves with a cotton swab dipped in alcohol. Remove brown scale insects by gently scraping them off. Aphids should be removed by hand. Isolate plants that show signs of insect pest infestation to prevent infestation of other plants.

Prune tall growth and old flower stems and allow plenty of air flow around your plant to avoid powdery mildew.
Treatment: If the plant becomes infected with powdery mildew, potassium bicarbonate can be used to control it.

If rot affects the plant, it normally starts at the root.
Treatment: It is recommended to discard affected plants and start new ones from plantlets.

Toxicity: All parts of the Bryophyllum daigremontianum plant are poisonous (they contain daigremontianin and other bufadienolides), which can even be fatal if ingested by infants or small pets. It is also poisonous to humans.

Note: Bryophyllum daigremontianum is a widespread weed of pastures, grasslands, open woodlands, waste areas, disturbed sites, fence lines, roadsides, embankments, and railways in subtropical, semi-arid, tropical and warmer temperate regions. It is commonly found growing in rocky sites or on poor soils. It prefers rocky outcrops in dry savannas and urban open spaces.
Bryophyllum daigremontianum has been introduced to many parts of the world as an ornamental plant. However, these uses cannot compensate for this plant’s overall negative impacts.

Uses and display: Bryophyllum daigremontianum is more ideal for container growing than landscape planting because it can be difficult to control in outdoor gardens. Both, its unusual leaves which carry the plantlets and its tubular cluster of flowers have ornamental value. Arranged with other succulents, Bryophyllum daigremontianum makes a lovely desert window sill planter. It is a great looking as specimen plant as well as mass planting or group planting.
Bryophyllum daigremontianum is growing in shallow rocky soils, so it is an excellent plant for rocky gardens and xeriscaping.


Foliage – green
Features – flowers
Shape – upright
Height: 90-120cm (36-48 inch)

Watering in rest period – sparingly
Watering in active growth period – moderately
Light – bright
Temperature in rest period – min 16°C max 24°C (61-75°F)
Temperature in active growth period – min 16°C max 24°C (61-75°F)
Humidity – low

Hardiness zone: 9b-11

Bryophyllum daigremontianumBryophyllum daigremontianum - plantletsBryophyllum daigremontianum - flowers

Evergreen, Garden Plants, Indoor Plants, Succulents , , , , ,

Asplenium scolopendrium

Common name: Hart’s Tongue Fern

Family: Aspleniaceae

Synonymous: Phyllitis scolopendrium
Scolopendrium vulgare
Asplenium altajense
Phyllitis japonica

Asplenium scolopendrium

Asplenium scolopendrium

Distribution and habitat: Asplenium scolopendrium is an evergreen fern widely distributed in central and southern Europe, eastern Iran, northwestern Africa, Korea, Japan, Sakhalin and scattered populations appear in eastern North America. It occurs at sites on or near dolomite (magnesium-rich limestone) that remain consistently moist year-round such as sinkholes, cave entrances, wooded limestone ravines and talus slopes and steep north-facing slopes with rich, moist soil. Within these sites, it is typically found in microhabitats such as moist crevices, moss mats, depressions, spray zones and shady cliff margins.
The common name is in reference to the supposed resemblance of the frond shape to a deer’s tongue.

Description: Asplenium scolopendrium is commonly grown as indoor plant. Tufts of fronds unfurl from an upright, branching rhizome that lies partly above, partly below the surface of the soil. The rhizome which is covered with light brown, furry scales, is usually hidden by the fronds stalks.
Depending on their age and growing conditions, the stalks are from 2 to 25cm (0.8-10 inch) long and their colour is usually black at the base shading to green at the point where they became the midrib of the bade. Frond blades are strap-like, pointed at the tip, lobed at the base and medium green in colour. In the wild each blade can grow 50cm (20 inch) long and 13cm (5 inch) wide, but in potted plants they are seldom more than half that size. The fronds grow erect at first, but arch over as they lengthen. Spore cases grow in a herringbone pattern on the beck of the most of them. The edges of blades can be undulate and sometimes frilled and the tip of each blade can be either pointed or crested like a cockscomb. These differently shaped blades can all be present at one time on the same plant. In fact, it is this characteristic of Asplenium scolopendrium that chiefly appeals to many indoor gardeners.
Asplenium scolopendrium is often grown as an ornamental plant, with several cultivars selected with varying frond form, including with frilled frond margins, forked fronds and cristate forms.

Houseplant care: Asplenium scolopendrium grow actively throughout the year under ideal condition. Growth slows down, however, during the short-day winter months.

Light: Medium light is best for these ferns throughout the year. They should never be subjected to direct sunlight which will scorch the fronds.

Temperature: Asplenium scolopendrium grows well in normal room temperatures and can also tolerate temperatures down to 10°C (50°F). These ferns need high humidity in warm positions. When the temperature rises above 18°C (64°F), stand the ferns on trays of damp pebbles.

Watering: Water moderately, giving enough at each watering to make the potting mixture moist throughout but allowing the top centimetre (0.4 inch) or so of the potting mixture to dry out before watering again. If room temperature is allowed to fall below 13°C (55°F) for more than two or three days at a time, water more sparingly during this cool period, allowing a full half of the potting mixture to dry out between waterings.

Feeding: Use half-strength standard liquid fertiliser. Frequency of feeding depends on the type of potting mixture. For plants that are potted in soil-based potting mixture monthly feedings should be adequate. For those ferns grown in peat-based potting mixture apply fertiliser once every two weeks.

Potting and repotting: Either use a peat-based potting mixture or one composed of half soil-based mixture, half leaf mould.
If peat based potting mixture is used, add a tablespoon of lime chips to each cupful of mixture in order to neutralise the acidity of the peat. Repotting is necessary only when roots fill the pot. When this happens, carefully move the ferns into pots one size larger. This is best done in spring.
After maximum convenient pot size – probably 15-20cm (6-8 inch) – has been reached, use these ferns for propagation or carefully cut away about one-third of the root ball and replace plants in the same pot size, adding fresh potting mixture at the same time. When repotting, always plant rhizomes vertically with half of each rhizome below and half above the surface or the potting mixture.

Gardening: Once planted, Asplenium scolopendrium fern grows slowly and needs little attention apart tidying in spring. Tatty or damaged fronds can be removed in early spring as or just before the new growth emerges. Removing the old fronds prevent disease and limits lasting damage and the ferns will look tidy.

Position: Asplenium scolopendrium need a cool shady place to thrive. Plant these ferns in part shade to full shade. If grown in full sun, the ferns are yellow and stunted, while the ferns that grow under the shade are luxuriant and dark green. In alpine areas, plant them in a sheltered location where they are exposed to sun rays only during the coolest hours of the day.

Soil: Asplenium scolopendrium thrives in humusy, limestone soils. It needs superior soil drainage to avoid root rot. The ideal growing conditions are a slightly alkaline well-drained but moist soil that has lots of leaf mould incorporated.
In wild these ferns can be found growing with their roots in very small amounts of soil founded between rocks and crevices. This kind of environment can be replicated in the garden but ferns grown in poor conditions will be small.
It is recommended to mulch annually around the plants with compost to keep the soil moisture even.

Irrigation: Water Asplenium scolopendrium ferns regularly during the growing season and keep them on the dry side during the cold winter months. Keep these ferns in medium moisture without overwatering. Do not allow the soil to dry out until the ferns have become established otherwise the tips will dry out. Once established, they becomes more tolerant of dry soil.
Avoid watering fronds by watering straight to the roots whenever possible, not on the crown. Also watering in the morning allow ferns to dry their frond before the cold night. These precautions help to avoid crown rot.

Fertilising: Asplenium scolopendrium planted in the ground, like a spring dressing of blood and bone or cow manure as well as a regular liquid fertiliser at half strength in the summer months.

Propagation: Propagate old Asplenium scolopendrium ferns in spring by cutting off small branched of the main rhizome. Make sure that each cutting bears a tuft of fronds. Plant cuttings individually in 8cm (3 inch) pot of one of the recommended potting mixtures, only half-burring each cutting. Place the potted cuttings in medium light at normal room temperatures and make the potting mixture barely moist throughout until new growth develops. Thereafter, it is possible to treat the new ferns as mature Asplenium scolopendrium ferns.
These ferns may also be propagated from spores at any time of the year, best sown as soon as they are ripe on the surface of a humus-rich sterilized soil. Keep the compost moist, preferably by putting a plastic bag over the pot. The spores usually germinate in the spring. Spring sown spores germinate in 1 – 3 months at 15°C (59°F). Pot on small clumps of plantlets as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse. Keep the plants humid until they are well established. Once the plants are 15cm (6 inch) or more tall, plant them out into their permanent positions in the spring.

Root rot can be a problem in poorly drained soils. Also crown rot may appear when the crown is wet in cold conditions.
Treatment: Apply a suitable systemic fungicide and clear all debris away from the crown to facilitate good air circulation.

Greenfly and blackfly are rare in the garden; they are more likely to occur on ferns grown indoors or in greenhouse. Capsids are graze the frond creating tiny white blotches at random.
Treatment: Apply a suitable insecticide as indicated on the label. To avoid scorching, spray in evening when there is no risk of the sun burning the damp fronds.

Slugs and snails are sometimes attracted to the thicker textured fronds of Asplenium scolopendrium ferns.
Treatment: Use a snail and slugs pesticide to prevent and control them.

Vine weevil grubs are a common pest, their grubs eating any part of the ferns, usually starting with the roots and moving to the leaf base. Vine weevil is common in gardens, but rarely cause any problems outdoors; it is with pot grown plants the real damage done.
Treatment: Pick up and destroy adults. Plants with badly damaged roots cannot usually be saved. Immediately on sighting an adult weevil, drench the potting mixture with a suitable pesticide.

Typically eelworm damage is seen as dead patches of fronds confined by larger veins.
Treatment: Control is just about impossible. It is best to remove fronds suspected of being infected as soon as possible. The problem is most likely to occur in damp, humid conditions.

Recommended varieties:
Asplenium scolopendrium with frond blade margins or tips that are non-variable in shape.

Asplenium scolopendrium ‘Capitatum’ has fronds blades with undulating edges and heavily crested tips.

Asplenium scolopendrium ‘Crispum’ has deeply indented and greatly undulating or frilled edges (like an Elizabethan ruff) with simple pointed tip.

Asplenium scolopendrium ‘Crispum cristatum’ has frond blades with crested tips as well as very frilled edges.

Note: Asplenium scolopendrium has been placed in a segregate genus Phyllitis. Asplenium scolopendrium forms hybrids with other Asplenium species, including those species sometimes classified in the separate genus Camptosorus, which is one reason that both Phyllitis and Camptosorus species are now generally included in Asplenium. On the other hand, a recent phylogenetic study of the Aspleniaceae family suggests that Asplenium scolopendrium is only distantly related to other Asplenium species and that the genus Phyllitis should again be recognized.

Companion plants: The tall vertical straps of the Asplenium scolopendrium fern are perfect partners for the rounded foliage of the small-leaved Hosta species. Wide clumps of the Asplenium scolopendrium look particularly good underplanted with the variegated foliage of Hosta ‘Ginko Craig’. Ferns grow well together and those with more delicate foliage associate successfully with the leathery fronds of Asplenium scolopendrium.

Uses and display: Asplenium scolopendrium fern grows wild in shaded areas, often forming large drifts under trees amongst rocks and streams where its upright pointed tongues contrast strikingly with the softer shapes of damp-loving wild flowers. In gardens, these evergreen ferns are good for shaded wild gardens and are also invaluable for year-round interest amongst shrubs or other shade and moisture-loving perennials. In decorative groupings the unusual shape of these ferns, along with their fresh colouring, makes an interesting contrast with flowering plants.
It makes a good selection for shady areas of limestone rock gardens, alpine and shade gardens or for edging in a moist woodland garden. It is also valuable for adding vertical interest towards the front of a partially shaded border or for underplanting established trees and shrubs.


Foliage – green
Shape – bushy
Height: 30-40cm (12-16 inch)
Spread 30-45cm (12-18 inch)

Watering in rest period – sparingly
Watering in active growth period – moderately
Light – medium
Temperature in active growth period – min 10°C max 13°C (50-55°F)
Temperature in active growth period – min 13°C max 24°C (55-75°F)
Humidity – low

Hardiness zone: 5a-9b

Asplenium scolopendrium Asplenium scolopendrium CrispumAsplenium scolopendrium Asplenium scolopendrium - fronds variation

Evergreen, Ferns, Foliage Plants, Garden Plants, Indoor Plants , , , , , , , ,

Browallia speciosa

Common name: Amethyst Flower, Bush Violet, Lovely Browallia, Sapphire Flower

Family: Solanaceae

Synonymous: Browallia gigantea

Browallia speciosa

Browallia speciosa

Distribution and habiat: Browallia speciosa is a shrubby, woody perennial native to tropical South America growing in open areas, roadsides, pastures, vacant lots in moist and seasonally dry regions at elevations between 150-1200m (500-4000 feet).

Descriptions: Browallia speciosa is a blue-violet tender perennial usually grown as an annual flowering plant. When grown as an annual, it will typically rise to 0.5m (2 feet) tall. This plant has tubular, 5-lobed, purple-blue flowers with white centres and they are about 5cm (2 inch) wide . The flowers are blooming singly or in small clusters in the upper leaf axils, from late spring to fall. The oval leaves with pointed tips, up to 8cm (3 inch) long, are born on the plant. They are a matt-green colour and feel slightly sticky to touch.
Browallia speciosa is grown as a tropical annual. After it produces the show of flowers in its first year or so, it will often begin to decline, therefore it is practical to be discarded and grow a new plant in next spring.

Houseplants care: Indoors Browallia speciosa plants are prized for their vividly coloured, sapphire blue flowers. When grown in pots, their slim stems may need thin support, but they also make attractive trailing plants if grown in baskets.
As Browallia speciosa develop, nip out the growing tips of stems to encourage bushy growth.

Light: Provide a position offering bright light with at least four hours of direct sunlight every day.

Temperature: Browallia speciosa do best if they can be kept at a temperature of 12-16°C (54-61°F); temperatures much over 18°C (64°F) will tend to shorten the life of the flowers.

Watering: Water moderately, enough to make the potting mixture thoroughly moist, but allowing the top two-thirds to dry out between waterings.

Feeding: Once new plants are established, begin applications of standard liquid fertiliser every two weeks and continue throughout the whole of the flowering period.

Potting and repotting: Purchesed Browallia speciosa will normally be in 13cm (5 inch) pots of soil-based potting mixture and will not need repotting. They should be discarded after flowering.

Gardening: Browallia speciosa is typically grown as a warm weather annual. Pinch plants back to encourage branching. Prior to first fall frost, some plants may be cut back, planted in small containers and brought indoors for winter flowering.
Make sure to provide good ventilation if growing under glass.
Although cold temperatures will slow its growth considerably, it can tolerate the brisk air well and will continue to flower.

Light: Browallia speciosa plant grows  in sun to shade. Blooms best in warm shade. In hot summer areas, plants are best sited in sun dappled conditions, bright shade or afternoon shade.

Soil: Browallia speciosa performs well in humusy, consistently moist, well-drained soils.
Prepare the bed by working in a little compost or sphagnum peat moss. Plant Browallia speciosa 20 to 25cm (8-10 inch) apart in well-drained soil after the last frost date.
Mulch these plants with dried grass clippings, pine needles, wood chips or another organic material.

Irrigation: Browallia speciosa needs regular water. During the growing period, water moderately and keep it just moist in winter.

Fertiliser: Apply a low-nitrogen liquid fertiliser monthly during the growing season.

Propagation: Propagation of Browallia speciosa is by seed. If it is sown in early spring, plants will begin to flower in early autumn; later sowing will result in later flowering periods. Sow the seed thinly in small pots of moistened rooting potting mixture. Place the pots in a plastic bag or small propagation case and keep them at a temperature of 15-18°C (59-64°F) in medium light. When seedling are about 1cm (0.4 inch) tall, remove them from the plastic bag or propagator, water them enough to make the potting mixture barely moist and leave them until they are about 5cm (2 inch) tall. Then pot them individually in 8cm (3 inch) pots of soil-based mixture and treat them as mature plants. They should be moved on into 13cm pots (5 inch) after they have filled the smaller size with roots. Alternatively, six to eight small plants can be placed in a hanging basket measuring about 20cm (8 inch).

Recommended varieties:
Browallia speciosa cv. ‘Major’ general has erect stems 45-60cm (18-24 inch) tall that carry slightly drooping, 5-6cm (2-2.5 inch) long pointed egg shaped, bright green leaves on very short leaf-stalks. Violet-blue flowers 5cm (2 inch) across, which are produced from leaf axils and borne on short stalks, are tubular, but they flare out flat, dividing into five lobes. Most of the flowers have a white throat and some deep blue veining running along the lobes.

Browallia speciosa cv. ‘Silver Bells’ is a white flowered plant.

Availability: Sow Browallia speciosa seed indoors 8-10 weeks before last spring frost date or purchase spring starter plants in six packs from nurseries.

Aphids, leafhoppers and whiteflies may feed on Browallia speciosa new shots and its leaves.
Treatment: Successive sprays of insecticidal soaps or white oil will eradicate both aphids and whiteflies infestations and reduce high populations of leafhopper nymphs; thorough coverage of leaf undersides is important. It is very difficult to control adults effectively and no control is effective.

The base of the plant rots if the plant is given too much water.
Treatment: Once the base has started to turn black the plant cannot be saved and must be discarded.

Yellow leaves occur when the plant is too cold.
Prevention: Keep the plant in a warm position.

The plant is droopy. It needs more water.
Prevention: Water more frequently.

Fungal leaf spots and tomato spotted wilt virus may occur.
Treatment: Fungal diseases can be effectively controlled using recommended range of fungicide either systemic and non-systemic. Plant hygiene will help to prevent these diseases.   Ensure proper air circulation. This will help the plant to heal if does experience a fungal or pest infestation that must be treated.

Over fertilisation causes leaf growth at the expense of flower production.
Treatment: Use low-nitrogen liquid fertiliser in small dosage to prevent overfertilisation.

Companion plants: Browallia speciosa will make a stunning display when is planted together with Petunia species, Ipomoea batatas (Sweet Potato Vine) or Lobularia maritima (Sweet Alyssum).

Uses and display: Browallia speciosa is perfect to grow in all kinds of containers or hanging baskets, cascading down a wall. Can be planted in mass or large groups in beds, borders and woodland gardens. It looks great in rock gardens and makes a breathtaking potted specimen plant. It makes a splash of colour on a windowsill, especially if placed among foliage plants. It can be kept as houseplant for bright, warm locations in winter.


Foliage – green
Features – flowers
Shape – bushy
Height: 0.5m (2 feet)

Watering in active growth period – moderately
Light – bright
Temperature in active growth period – min 13°C max 18°C (55-64°F)
Humidity – low

Hardiness zone: 9-11

Browallia speciosaBrowallia speciosaBrowallia speciosa

Annuals, Flowering Plants, Garden Plants, Indoor Plants , , , , , , ,

Brassia verrucosa

Common name: The Warty Brassia

Family: Orchidaceae

Synonymous: Brassia verrucosa subsp. gireoudiana
Brassia aristata
Brassia brachiata
Brassia coryandra
Brassia cowanii
Brassia longiloba
Brassia odontoglossoides
Oncidium brachiatum
Oncidium verrucosum

Brassia verrucosa

Brassia verrucosa

Distribution and habitat: Brassia verrucosa is an epiphytic orchid native to Mexico, Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua), Venezuela, and Brazil. This large species is a warm to cool growing epiphyte of open humid, evergreen to semi-deciduous cloud forests on tree trunks and larger branches from altitudes of 900 to 2400m (3000-7900 feet).

Description: Brassia verrucosa are epiphytic orchids with unusually shaped flowers. It has upright, flattened, egg-shaped, medium green pseudobulbs about 8cm (3 inch) tall and 7cm (3 inch) wide. Each pseudobulb carries two leaves about 38cm (15 inch) long and 5cm (2 inch) wide. The flower stem which can be 30-90cm (12-36 inch) long, bears up to 16 fragrant blooms in spring and early summer. Each flowers grows up to 12-15cm (5-6 inch) long and 10cm (4 inch) across. Some forms, with flowers 20-25cm (8-10 inch) long and 10-12cm (4-5 inch) across, are sometimes thought to be a separate species and are given the name Brassia brachiata. The sepals and petals are pale green spotted with dark green, red or brownish purple, mainly near the base. The roughly diamond-shaped lip is white with dark green, wart like spots.
As the flowers open consecutively along the stem over a period of days, by the time the last are opening, the petals and sepals of the early flowers are a deeper color. The younger of the flowers are scented, but again there is a deterioration to an odor as they age. The flowers will stay on the plant for about 3 weeks.

Houseplant care: Brassia verrucosa is an easy to grow orchid. It likes to remain undisturbed for a few years and its habit of going to sleep for some months respected. When the flowers open they last better if removed to slightly cooler conditions.
Remove the dry, papery sheath from the base of pseudobulbs to prevent buildup of moisture and remove hiding places for pets.

Light: Give Brassia verrucosa bright filtered light all year long. Never expose these orchids to direct sunlight.

Temperature: Brassia verrucosa is a warm to cool growing orchid. Ideally, the year long range of temperature should be 15-23°C (59-73°F) during the day and 10-15°C (50-59°F) at night. When the temperature rises above 23°C (73°F) for more than two or three days at a time, stand containers on trays of moist pebbles or suspended water filled saucers below plants in hanging baskets or growing epiphytically on supports. In addition, mist-spray the foliage daily.
Also, good air circulation is essential: the air flow should be moist and gentle – no orchids like draughts.

Watering: Water actively growing Brassia verrucosa moderately, giving enough to thoroughly moisten the potting mixture at each watering, but let approximately two-thirds of the mixture dry out before watering again. After flowering has ceased, encourage these plants to rest for a short time (about three weeks).
During this rest period give only enough water to keep the mixture from completely drying out or the pseudobulbs from shriveling.
While these orchids enjoy high humidity and moist potting mix, they will not tolerate wet feet. Never allow the root zone to sit in water.

Feeding: Give all actively growing orchids a foliar feed at half strength with every third or fourth watering. Feeding in important for healthy growth and flowering.
Like most orchids, the roots of Brassia verrucosa are sensitive to fertilizer salt buildup, so at all times, use fertiliser at half strength, and when watering, flush the pot thoroughly.

Potting and repotting: Any of the potting mixtures recommended for orchids will be suited. Brassia verrucosa can be grown epiphytically on a simple wooden support.
Move Brassia verrucosa plants into container two sizes larger whenever more room for new pseudobulbs is required – about once every two or three years. The best time for repotting these orchids is in spring. To reduce any root damage, soak the container where is grown the orchids for ten minutes in warm water to make roots more pliable and easier to remove from the pot.

Gardening: Brassia verrucosa likes a fairly open, free-draining medium and intermediate to warm temperatures during the growing season. In the colder months it will grow in the intermediate to cool range. They appreciate plenty of air movement.

Position: Provide them with good light but shaded from sun. Their native habitat usually offers longer light day (equal day and night length) and more brighter then they can get outside of this habitat. Orchids grown outside of these regions will need supplemental light during spring and fall to give optimal conditions. The colour of the leaves is a good indicator to show if the orchid gets enough light. They should be mid green in optimum light.

Soil: Brassia verrucosa is an epiphytic plant and grows in trees and anchors itself to the bark. Additionally, this orchid can be grown in a pot or an orchid basket filled with recommended orchid potting mixture.

Watering:  Water regularly, particularly through the growing period. Although some recommend giving them a dryer winter rest period, others grow them evenly moist all year round. In either case they should not be kept constantly wet, particularly in colder weather. These orchids come from areas high humidity for most of the year, so keep them well misted with good ventilation and evenly moist and change the watering practices at any stress signs shown by plants.

Fertiliser: A balanced fertiliser will work best for Brassia verrucosa. Feed them a weak weekly liquid fertilising by following the instructions on the fertiliser package except make the solution at quarter strength.
In case of overfretilising, flush the pot thoroughly.

Propagation: Divide plants with sufficient pseudobulbs in the spring. Cut the rhizome into two or more segments, making sure that each section carries at least two pseudobulbs.Plant each segment in a 7-10cm (3-4 inch) container or attach it to a support and water the plant very sparingly until the new growth appears. Thereafter, treat the growing plant as a mature Brassia verrucosa.

Problem: The colour of the leaves of Brassia verrucosa orchids is a good indicator to the health of the plant:  mid green indicates good health, dark green indicates the plant is growing in too little light, which may affect its flowering potential and yellow leaves indicates too much light.

Ants are not harming direct the orchids, but they have the potential to bring pest infestation as they carry many types of sap sucking insects: aphids, mealy bugs and scale insects. Also, the sweet honeydew sucking sap insects secret encourage sooty mold – a type of fungi –  to adhere and to grow on the plants, making them very unsightly.
Treatment: Ants can be controlled with ant baits and traps. Household water-based insecticide sprays can also be used, but do not spray directly into the plants. In case of severe infestations, where ants have built nests amongst the orchid, it may be necessary to spray with stronger insecticides.

Scale insects and mealy bugs sometimes attacks these plants, hiding in particular under the dried-up leaves on pseudobulbs and at the base of old flower stalks after these have been cut back.
Treatment: Physically removing the scales and then controlling the immature stages with chemical sprays may help lightly infested plants. Use an adequate pesticide to combat the insects infestation.

Thrips suck the sap of flowers and inflorescences, resulting in failure of bud development, non-opening of flowers, distorted flowers with brown patches and colour breaks. Inflorescence attacked by thrips shows a typical distorted inflorescence development.
Treatment: Although thrips are susceptible to insecticides, their control is difficult as they are capable of flight and they may hide inside the buds and other floral structures and out of the reach of the insecticides. Hence, multiple sprayings may be needed with severe infestation.

Beetles eat the soft tissues of orchids such as the tender shoots and new shoots. Weevils attack is normally seen as holes in plants as they bore into the soft tissue to lay eggs after which the grubs will continue to eat and enlarge the stem cavity.
Treatment: Insecticides are capable of controlling these insects, but if they are inside the cavities of the plants, they will not be killed. To fully exterminate them, systemic insecticide are needed.

Snails and slugs will occasionally crawl over and feed on buds, blossoms, leaves and tender stems, resulting in damages that may lead to a secondary infection.
Treatment: Use a snail and slugs pesticide to prevent and control them.

The most common types of fungi capable of infecting orchids are the fungal crown rot caused by Phytophthora; damping-off disease by Pythium; black spot by Alternaria, Helminthosporium and Anthracnose; leaf tip disease by Gloeosporium. Orchid flowers can be affected in the form of flower blight by Botrytis; flower spots by Curvularia. Symtoms usually appear during the wet season when it rains frequently and the days are cloudy.
When an orchid plant starts to show signs of wilting, it will be due to root rot caused by Fusarium. This is very serious because the fungus will stop the water from being conducted up to the leaves and the plant will shrivel and die within days.
Treatment: Fungal diseases can be effectively controlled using recommended range of fungicide either systemic and non-systemic. Ensure proper air circulation. This will help the orchid to heal if there is a fungal or pest infestation that must be treated.

Uses and display: Brassia verrucosa is an attractive orchid with showy flowers, which will make a wanted  addition to any orchid collection. It can be grown in a pot or basket or grown epiphytically on a wooden support. Display these orchids at eye level, where its flowers can be seen up close. They suit tropical, oriental and bush garden designs.


Foliage – green
Features – flowers
Shape – bushy
Height: 30-90cm (12-36 inch)

Watering in rest period – sparingly
Watering in active growth period – moderately
Light – bright
Temperature in rest period – min 10°C max 24°C (50-75°F)
Temperature in active growth period – min 10°C max 24°C (50-75°F)
Humidity – high

Hardiness zone: 9a-11

Brassia verrucosa Brassia verrucosa Brassia verrucosa

Flowering Plants, Garden Plants, Indoor Plants, Orchids , , , , , , , , , ,

Bougainvillea glabra

Common name: Paper Flower, Paperflower, Lesser Bougainvillea, Bougainvillea

Family: Nyctaginaceae

Bougainvillea glabra

Bougainvillea glabra

Distribution and habitat: Bougainvillea glabra is an evergreen, climbing shrub with thorny stems. It usually grows 3-4m (10–12feet) tall, occasionally up to 9m (30 feet). Tiny white flowers usually appear in clusters surrounded by colorful papery bracts, hence the name paperflower.
Bougainvillea glabra is native to Brazil growing in well drained sandy desert soils, slopes, mesas and disturbed rocky soil in a broad elevation range, anywhere from sea level to 750m (0-2500 feet). Its natural habitat is equatorial where day and night lengths are almost equal. Bougainvillea glabra in these areas tend to bloom year round. Elsewhere, best blooming occurs when the night length and day length are almost equal (in spring or fall).

Description: Bougainvillea glabra is a vigorous climbing species, which flowers at an earlier age than most kinds. It is a subtropical woody plant armed with spines. Though normally climbers – as seen outdoors in warm climates – they can be trained and pruned to keep them bushy indoors and there are some recently introduced dwarf-growing kinds that remain bushy without special attention. Their oval leaves are sparse and uninteresting, but they have decorative papery bracts surrounding small cream-white coloured flowers. The bracts appear in clusters of 10 to 20. Purple or magenta bracts are produced in late summer and fall and the varieties include other colours.
They tend to flower all year round in equatorial regions. Elsewhere, they are seasonal, with bloom cycles typically four to six weeks. But the real flowers are tucked away inside the papery bracts from summer to autumn.

Houseplant care: Bougainvillea glabra are not easy to grow indoors. Because they require better condition than are normally available, they are grown most successfully as windows plant. In naturally warmer areas they will do well in sunrooms or conservatories.
These plants have spines; use extreme caution when handling them.

Light: In order to flower, Bougainvillea glabra need at least four hours of direct sunlight every day during the active growth period. And they must have bright light at other times or they will not thrive in an indoor situation.

Temperature: Normal room temperature are suitable during the active growth period. In the winter rest period they should be kept cool but not bellow 10°C (50°F).

Watering: Water actively growing plants moderately, giving enough to moisten the potting mixture thoroughly; allow the top two-thirds to dry out between waterings. Amounts should be drastically reduced as the rest period approaches and the potting mixture should just be kept from drying out.

Feeding: Begin applications of a complete liquid fertiliser as soon as growth starts in early spring and continue the applications once every two weeks throughput the flowering period.

Potting and repotting: Use a soil based potting mixture with a little extra peat moss well mixed in. Move young plants into pots one size larger in early spring. Disturb the roots as little as possible because the plant might go into shock and take weeks to recover. Bougainvillea glabra blooms best when pot-bound. Do not repot these plants in pots unnecessary large.
Annualy top dress these plants with fresh potting mixture.

Gardening: Bougainvillea glabra is heat and drought tolerant and frost sensitive. They can usually tolerate die back from a freeze, but will withhold blooms for a while.
If unsupported, these plants will remain compact or behave as ground covers, while if given support they will climb vigorously, using their sharp thorns as a means of attachment.

Also, Bougainvillea glabra takes well pruning which is a useful attribute in styling bonsai. Because these plants generally blooms on new growth, each branch, as blooms begin to fade, should be cut back to a point somewhat shorter than the desired length. Seal all cuts to prevent rot. If rot is detected on a collected specimen, cut it out completely.

Position: Bougainvillea glabra needs full sunlight, warm weather to flower well. The length of time they will bloom is dependent upon the health of the plant and the environment they are in, the more sun and heat, the better. However, long days and short nights limit a Bougainvillea glabra ability to bloom, this plant preferring equal days and night length as flowering season.
It is rampant by nature and will cover a whole shed or large tree stump – but it is best trained over a trellis against a warm wall.

Soil: For best results, plant Bougainvillea glabra in a light well-drained soil.

Irrigation: Although drought tolerant, they need plenty of moisture during the flowering season. Give copious quantities of water in the hot weather, but allow almost to dry out in winter.

Fertilising: Fertilise once in the spring with a low nitrogen fertiliser and maybe once again in the fall.

Propagation: Cuttings of new growth 15cm (6 inch) long may be taken in spring. After dipping the cut ends into hormone rooting powder, insert them in a moistened equal-parts mixture of soil-based potting mixture and coarse sand or perlite. The potted cutting should then be placed in a heated propagating case and kept at 23°C (73°F) in bright filtered light. Roots will form in eight weeks after which plants can be repotted in standard mixture. Considerable care is required when repotting to avoid damage to the delicate roots of the young plants.

Problems: It is not common for Bougainvillea glabra to be affected by pests and diseases, but some problems may appear due to unbalanced feed and poor conditions.

Overfeeding will produce masses of foliage but very little in the way of colorful bracts.

The old established method of forcing flowers is to withhold water to a point of causing severe stress to the plant.

Caterpillars, aphids and scale  may infest Bougainvillea glabra plants.
Treatment: Use a suitable pesticide to eradicate these pests.

Bougainvillea glabra may also develop chlorosis as response to mineral deficiencies:
Nitrogen deficiency: Older leaves turn a pale green and the veins are usually a reddish color. New growth will be stunted.
Phosphorus deficiency: The veins will turn red to purple and the plant as a whole will look purplish.
Potassium deficiency: Causes the edges of older the leaves to be a purple color and the leaf tips will be a brownish color.
Magnesium deficiency: First appears on older leaves where they turn a spotted yellow or tan color.
Zinc deficiency: (rare) Will look almost like magnesium but here the leaf will be twisted.
Iron deficiency: Young growth is stunted and pale, but the veins on the leaf remain green.
Calcium deficiency: Dead areas appear in young growth and the tips soon die.
Treatment: Recommended remedy for any of the deficiencies above is the application of a complete micronutrient blend.

Root rot will appear when plants are over-watered or are subjected to water logged conditions.
Treatment: These situations are easier to be prevented. Apply a broad spectrum fungicides during transplanting or planting in landscape.

Fungal and Bacterial Leaf Spot (Pseudomonas and ropogonis) infections appear as dark necrotic spots on leaves and bracts and  puckered and distorted growth. Defoliation will occur when leaf spotting, blighting or marginal necrosis becomes severe. Care must be taken that fungus does not invade other trees and shrubs around.
Treatment: Maintaining dry foliage is the primary control measure. Remove and dispose infected leaves and/or plants from the growing area. Apply fungicides as preventive measure.

Uses and display: Bougainvillea glabra can be easily grown as a hedge, an arch or a tree on the ground and in pots. It is a characteristic porch and arbor vine in warm countries and sometimes grown in greenhouses. It can groomed as a ground cover, pruned as an espalier, trained as a tree or contained in a pot in a variety of shapes. This plant is ideal for bonsai. Also, this plant can be grown in hanging basket with a hard pruning to maintain the shape and size, making a splendid specimen for balcony or sunroom.


Foliage – green
Features – flowers
Shape – climbing and trailing

Watering in rest period – sparingly
Watering in active growth period – moderately
Light – direct
Temperature in rest period – min 10°C max 16°C (50-61°F)
Temperature in active growth period – min 16°C max 24°C (61-75°F)
Humidity – low

Height: 5-6m (15-20 feet)
Spread 3-5m (10-18 feet)

Hardiness zone: 9a-11

Bougainvillea glabraBougainvillea glabraBougainvillea glabraBougainvillea glabraBougainvillea glabraBougainvillea glabraBougainvillea glabraBougainvillea glabraBougainvillea glabra

Climber, Evergreen, Flowering Plants, Garden Plants, Indoor Plants , , , ,

Ardisia crenata

Common name: Coralberry, Christmas Berry, Australian Holly, Coral Ardisia, Coral Bush, Coralberry Tree, Hen’s-Eyes, Spiceberry

Family: Myrsinaceae

Synonymous: Ardisia crenata var. bicolor
Ardisia crenata subsp. crassinervosa

Ardisia crenata

Ardisia crenata

Distribution and habitat: Ardisia crenata is a species of flowering plant in the colicwood family, Myrsinaceae, that is native to East Asia.
Ardisia crenata is a compact shrub that reaches 1 metre (3.3 feet), often with a single stem. Leaves are dark green, thick, glossy and have tightly waved edges The flowers are small, white or reddish, fragrant and form clusters. The fruit is a glossy, bright red drupe. The seeds are able to germinate under a dense canopy and are dispersed by birds and humans. Usually this shrubs are seen in fairly large colonies, since the plants re-seed freely.
Ardisia crenata is an invasive species in the southeastern United States, escaping captivity in wooded areas of Florida. Also, it is viewed as an environmental weed in Australia, particularly in its rainforests. Mature plants are prolific seed producers and can be surrounded by many seedlings, also leading to reduced seed germination of valued native species.

Description: Ardisia crenata is a popular indoor plant most appreciated for its long-lasting bright red berries that are produced in large numbers at the bottom half of the plant. When grown in a pot, it reaches a maximum height of only about 90cm (35 inch), with a spread of about 30-38cm (12-15 inch). It has glossy, dark green leathery leaves up to 15cm (6 inch) long. Thick clusters of star-shaped white or rose-pink flowers are produced usually in early summer. These are followed by very decorative shiny berries which are held on nearly horizontal stalks. The berries are gradually take on a bright red colour and normally persist on the plant until flowering time the following year.

Houseplant care: Red berries, glossy foliage and low maintenance distinguish this beautiful little shrub. Prune it back to keep this shrub compact. Pruning each spring before flowering will keep it in shape. This shrub will grow to a slow rate.

Light: Provide Ardisia crenata with bright light at all times with several hours every day of direct sunlight.
In summer, Ardisia crenata can be moved outdoors on a part shade spot.

Temperature: Ardisia crenata plants prefer to be grown cool, ideally at a maximum temperature of 15°C (59°F). In higher temperatures, high humidity is essential in order to prevent the berries from falling prematurely. It is a good idea to stand the plants on trays or saucers of moist pabbles and also mist-spray them daily to increase humidity.

Watering: While plants are in active growth, water them plentifully as often as necessary to keep the potting mixture thoroughly moist. During the rest period allow the top centimetre or so of the potting mixture to dry out between waterings if the plants are kept at normal room temperature; if the temperature can be held below 15°C (59°F), however, water even more sparingly, allowing at least half the potting mixture to dry out between waterings.

Feeding: Apply to Ardisia crenata plants liquid fertiliser about every two weeks while plants are in active growth.

Potting and repotting: For the best result with Ardisia crenata use a soil based potting mixture. Move young plants into pots one size larger each spring until they reach the 13cm (5 inch) size where they will probably flower and fruit. Older plants tend to deteriorate and should be replaced when they have obviously begun to lose their vigour.

Gardening: Ardisia crenata is evergreen shrub unless killed back by very hard freezes without spring recovery. Where freezes are severe, these shrubs should be placed in a protected area or covered.
Prune lightly early spring to maintain its height and shape. Pinch back to promote a bushy habit.

Location: Ardisia crenata tolerates some direct sun, but not much without showing signs of distress. It grows best under a canopy of trees in fairly deep shade and protected from cold and drying winds.

Soil: Ardisia crenata likes deep soil rich with lots of organic matter, but it can also thrive in almost any non-soggy soil.

Irigation: These shrubs thrive in moist to average moist soil, but established Ardisia crenata is able to survive drought.

Fertilising: Mulch around plants or allow leaves and other debris from overhead trees to fall down naturally around them.

Propagation: Ardisia crenata plants are normally raised from seed sown in spring. Although this is possible in home, it is easier to buy young plants, which are usually sold in 8cm (3 inch) pots.
An alternative method of propagation is to take heel cuttings from lateral shoots during late spring or early summer. Sideshoot cuttings come away easily from the main stem with a small heel attached. Pot them in an equal-parts mixture of peat moss and sand and water them sparingly – just enough to keep the mixture moist. They should root in 6-8 weeks, especially if some form of bottom heat is provided from an electrical heated propagator. If this is not feasible, enclose the potted cuttings in a plastic bag and keep the bag in a place where it gets medium light and adequate warmth – not bellow 21°C (70°F) – until the roots have developed.
Ardisia crenata can also be propagated by air layering, a more difficult procedure.

Ardisia crenata refuses to bloom.
Treatment: Give to Ardisia crenata plant more humidity and sunlight in spring, before starting to form buds. Regular misting with tepid water will help increase the moisture in the air around it.

Dropping flower buds are caused by drafty or cold air.
Treatment: Ardisia crenata likes it cool, but not too cold. It will tolerate a minimum winter temperature of 7°C (45°F).

Ardisia crenata plants are prone to mealybugs infestation.
Treatment: A regular, careful inspection is needed. Occasional watering with systemic insecticides based on Imidacloprid will keep the plants free of mealy bugs.

Note: Ardisia crenata is sometimes wrongly called Ardisia crispa, which is the name of a very similar plant.

Uses and display: Plant Ardisia crenata under trees and allow to colonize freely, thinning as necessary. Group in shrub borders, shade gardens or woodland areas. For best effect, plant a group of at least three. In frost-free areas, Ardisia crenata can become quite large and a single specimen might occupy the same space allowed for two or three elsewhere.
Ardisia crenata is easily transformed into a houseplant and is attractive for the shiny foliage and its persistent berries. It is a fine looking species which should be displayed in a prominent position. Also, it is great looking in a conservatory or hall way and grow well in greenhouses.


Foliage – green
Features – flowers and berries
Shape – upright
Height: 90-100cm (36-40 inch)

Watering in rest period – sparingly
Watering in active growth period – plentifully
Light – bright
Temperature in rest period – min 7°C max 16°C (45-61°F)
Temperature in active growth period – min 7°C max 21°C (45-70°F)
Humidity – high

Hardiness zone: 8a-9b

Ardisia crenataArdisia crenata flowersArdisia crenata

Garden Plants, Indoor Plants, Shrubs , , , , , , , , , ,

Astrophytum capricorne

Common name: Goat’s Horn Cactus

Family: Cactaceae

Synonymous: Astrophytum senile
Astrophytum capricorne var. senilis
Echinocatus capricornis


Astrophytum capricorne

Astrophytum capricorne

Distribution and habitat: Astrophytum capricorne is a cactus widespread in the Chihuahuan Desert in Northern Mexico, in desert areas where rainfall is much lower – rainfall below 200mm/year (8 inch/year) – than in the habitat of other Astrophytum species. It grows mainly on limestone situations, among rocks and thorny bushes. He appreciates during its first years the protection of Agaves lechuguilla.
This cactus gets its common name, the Goat’s Horn Cactus, from the characteristic shape of its long, curled and spines – a grass-mimicry to camouflage the cactus among its surroundings.

Description: Astrophytum capricorne is a solitary globose or columnar cactus with variable shapes ( spines , flakes , growth) developed in order to perfect its mimicry in various habitats. Although young plants are globular, they soon become egg-shaped with age and eventually columnar up to 1.2m (4 feet) tall and 10 to 15cm (4-6 inch) in diameter. It is a strange looking species because of its display of curved spines on the stem which usually has eight prominent ribs that form around the edge from the top of the cactus to the bottom. The spines are 5 to 10 up to 7cm (3 inch) long, grey to brown wired, twisted, curved and flattened. They are rising from areoles arranged in vertical rows along each rib. As plant ages spines get a bit more intense and messier, but relatively sparse, they are stiff, but pliable and fragile. Young specimens will not have the characteristic spines as adult cacti. The epidermis of this cactus is dark green and more or less covered with the typical white woolly flecks characteristic of the genus. New flakes that appear on the apex tend to be brown before taking white colour.
The flower is yellow with a rather beautiful dark red throat. Blooming season is summer, but only mature Astrophytum capricorne – 3 to 4 years old cactus if growing conditions are favorable – will produce flowers. The flowers appear at the apex of the plant, at the base of each new areola. In warm weather, they last only one day or, in best circumstances, they will open again the next day. The flowers of Astrophytum capricorne open during the hot afternoon with a sweet fragrance.
The fruit covered with flattened spines, is 2.5cm (1 inch)in diametre, will turn red when ripe and open at the bottom. The seeds are large enough coloured bumpy red to brown.

Proper care: Because Astrophytum capricorne has fairly sharp prickly spines, use extreme caution when handling and wear gloves.
Overall this cactus is an easy grower and even the worst neglect cactus should be able to manage. It will grow to a slow rate.

Light: Astrophytum capricorne are desert cacti, therefore they loves sun and will grow well if provided with plenty of direct sunshine. To young specimens should be provided with indirect sunlight.
With inadequate light which could result in poor growth and unnatural shape.

Temperature: Astrophytum capricorne thrive in average room temperatures between 16-24°C (61-75°F) from spring until fall. From late autumn to late winter give them a rest winter at temperatures between 7-10°C (45-50°F ).
Normal indoor humidity is fine for Astrophytum capricorne cactus. Provide good air ventilation for healthy growth.

Watering: During the active growth period water these plants moderately, but allow the top three-quarters of the mixture to dry out thoroughly between waterings. During the rest period give only enough water to prevent the mixture from drying out.

Feeding: Give to Astrophytum capricorne a diluted cactus fertiliser during spring and until the end of summer, once very four weeks. They thrive in poor soils and need a limited supplies of fertiliser. Do not over use fertiliser as this can affect and damage the roots.

Potting and repotting: Astrophytum capricorne do best in a mixture which is composed of one part coarse sand to two parts of either soil-based mixture.
Repot annually young cacti up to 3 or 4 years old, after that repot them only if necessary. Any cactus up to 5 cm (2 inch) in diameter may be kept in an 8cm (3 inch) pot. It is advisable, however, to remove plants from their pots in early spring.  If the roots are tightly packed in the present pot, the plant should be repotted in a larger one. Otherwise, replace the plant in its original pot with fresh potting mixture.
A layer of gravel mix or small pebbles can be laid at the top ( maybe an inch deep) to give them desert look.

Gardening: In general, Astrophytum capricorne should never left outdoors unless it is being kept in a climate very similar to its natural habitat.

Position: Astrophytum capricorne is suited for sunny-brightly exposure, but can tolerate light shade.  It has a good heat tolerance and requires good ventilation.
This cactus likes warmth – recommended minimum winter temperature is around 5°C (41°F) – but cacti kept perfectly dry can easily survive to light frost – it is reported hardy to -7°C (19°F) for brief periods. Protect it from snow.

Soil: Use alkaline lime based soil with good drainage as this species is rot prone.

Irrigation: Water sparingly from spring to autumn and keep perfectly dry in winter or when night temperatures remain below 10°C (50°F).  In climates that are typically wet in winter, it may be necessary to keep this cactus in a cold frame or an unheated greenhouse. Larger plants are able to adapt to life in the garden with more ease than small seedlings.
These cacti are drought-tolerant.

Fertilization: Feed Astrophytum capricorne once during the growing season with a fertiliser specifically formulated for cactus and succulents (high potash fertilizer with a dilute low nitrogen), including all micro nutrients and trace elements diluted to half the strength recommended on the label. They thrive in poor soils and need a limited supplies of fertiliser to avoid the plants developing excess vegetation, which is easily attacked by fungal diseases.

Propagation: Astrophytum capricorne can be propagated easily from seed as it seldom produces offsets. The seeds can be sown in pots of fine, well-drained sandy soil, any time during the spring when temperatures are warm at about 21-27°C (70-81°F). Cover the seeds with a fine layer of grit and water from below with a fungicide to prevent damping off. For the 1-2 weeks cover the pots with a sheet of glass/clear perspex to keep the humidity levels high. Remove the glass and replace it with light shade-cloth and mist once or twice a day for the next two weeks after which most seeds should have germinated. At this point, mistings can be reduced to every second and then every third day as the little plants grow. The seedlings should not be disturbed until they are well rooted after which they can be planted separately in small pots.
Sometimes it is grafted to avoid root rot problems as plants grafted on an hardy stock are easy to grow and no special skill is required.

Problems: Nearly all cultivation problems with Astrophytum capricorne occur as a result of overwatering and poor ventilation, especially when weather conditions are dull and cool or very humid.

Red spiders may be effectively rubbed up by misting the plants from above.
Treatment: Use a suitable pesticide to combat these pests.

Mealy bugs occasionally develop aerial into the new leaves and flowers with disfiguring results, but the worst types develop underground on the roots and are invisible except by their effects.
Treatment: A regular, careful inspection is needed. Occasional watering with systemic insecticides based on Imidacloprid will keep the plants free of mealy bugs.

Scales, thrips and aphids are rarely a problem.
Treatment: Use a suitable pesticide to combat these pests.

Rot is only a minor problem if the plants are watered and aired correctly. If they are not, fungicides wold not help all that much.
Treatment: Discard badly affected plants. Prevent rotting by keeping cacti in well ventilated places, using well drained potting mixture and proper pot size and watering correctly.

Note: Astrophytum capricorne  has spines or sharp edges; use extreme caution when handling. This cactus could be  a hazard for children.

Uses and display: Astrophytum capricorne are grown for their display of curved, long, grass-mimicry spines, making it a strange specimen between cacti collections  and a stunning feature as an old giant cactus in xeriscaping or rock gardens.
Young, small specimens of Astrophytum capricorne are ideally suited to window-sill conditions or balconies or patios.



Foliage – green
Features – flowers
Shape – globular
Height: 45cm (18 inch)

Watering in rest period – sparingly
Watering in active growth period – moderately
Light – direct
Temperature in rest period – min 7°C max 10°C (45-50°F)
Temperature in active growth period – min 16°C max 24°C (61-75°F)
Humidity – low

Hardiness zone: 9b-11

Astrophytum capricorneAstrophytum capricorneAstrophytum capricorneAstrophytum capricorneAstrophytum capricorne fruit & seedAstrophytum capricorneAstrophytum capricorneAstrophytum capricorne fruit





Astrophytum capricorneAstrophytum capricorneAstrophytum capricorne flowerAstrophytum capricorne

Cactus, Garden Plants, Indoor Plants , , , ,

Blechnum gibbum

Common name: Silver Lady, Silver Lady Fern, Dwarf Tree Fern

Family: Blechnaceae

Synonymous: Lomaria gibbum
Lomaria gibba

Blechnum gibbum

Blechnum gibbum

Distribution and habitat: Blechnum gibbum is a species of the genus Blechnum along with another 200 species, belonging to the Blechnaceae family. It is a small tree fern, 90-120cm (36-48 inch) high, from tropical and subtropical climates. Native to Fiji, New Caledonia and the Pacific Islands, Blechnum gibbum is growing as an under story plant in forested areas where thrive in filtered light and high humidity in moist fertile soils.

Description: Blechnum gibbum is a neat, symmetrical rosette of fronds up to 90cm (36 inch) long and 30cm (12 inch) wide, which eventually crowns a scaly, black trunk up to 90cm (36 inch) tall. The many leaflets of each frond are shiny green and slightly drooping. There are several forms distinguished by having either narrower, wider or more pointed leaflets.
Unlike other tree ferns this dwarf variety is reasonably fast growing and the fronds will spread to over 1m (3 feet) in good conditions.
Blechnum gibbum have both sterile and spore bearing fronds.

Houseplant care: Blechnum gibbum is widely circulated as a houseplant.

Light: Bright light, but without any direct strong direct sunlight is most suitable for Blechnum gibbum ferns.

Temperature: These Blechnum gibbum ferns grow vigorously in warm – not hot- rooms. Tough tolerant of dry air, the plants should be given as much humidity as possible during the active growth period from mid-spring to late fall. Stand pots on trays of moist pebbles throughout the warmer months. With the resultant adequate humidity, they will tolerate temperatures slightly above 24°C (73°F). Lower temperatures are better in winter, though. Around 15°C (59°F) is ideal, but these ferns can even stand 10°C (50°F) if kept fairly dry.

Watering: Water actively growing ferns plentifully, as often as necessary to keep the mixture thoroughly moist, but never allow the pot to stand in water. If the temperature falls below 12°C (54°F) water moderately, allowing the top 1cm of the mixture to dry out between waterings.
This fern prefers rainwater because it has an intolerance of lime.

Feeding: One or two applications of half-strength liquid fertiliser during the active growth period will suffice.

Potting and repotting: Use equal parts of soil based potting mixture and leaf mould. Move plants into pots one size larger only when roots begin to appear on the surface of the potting mixture – about once every two years.
Maximum pot size recommended for these small tree ferns is around 40cm (16 inch). After that top dress this fern with fresh potting mixture.

Gardening: Blechnum gibbum ferns grow in a wide range of climates from temperate to sub-tropical locations, however this fern needs reasonable ventilation. It is not frost tolerate, although it has been reported to survive temperatures down to -4°C (25°F) and can re-grow if frozen. All fronds eventually blackened but new growth will emerge early in spring.
Its popularity can be attributed to its fast growth, perfect symmetry, attractive broad fronds and its ability to beautify the difficult dark parts of the garden. It is generally quite easy to grow.
Remove old, browning fronds by trimming off at their base. In time, this reveals a narrow trunk, reminiscent of this feature of larger tree ferns.

Position: Plant Blechnum gibbum fern in shady area of the garden where nothing seems to grow very well. This fern is probably at its best when multi-planted adding a cooling, yet tropical, feel to the garden. It will thrive placed by a stream edge which will provide it with added air humidity.
Blechnum gibbum can also be used to add an exotic effect in a patio tub or as a house plant in a bright location out of direct sun.

Soil: Blechnum gibbum will perform best in moist, free-draining, compost-enriched and slightly acidic soil. It has a reputation for being sensitive to transplanting.
Mulching is recommended to keep the roots cool and moist.

Irrigation: Keep the soil moist throughout the year for Blechnum gibbum. This may mean a weekly watering in winter and increase the frequency in warmer months. It is recommended to use drippers, rather than overhead watering, so the foliage avoids staying wet for long periods.
Containerised plants should generally be watered more frequently than in-ground plants. Water when the top layer of potting mix appears dry. Try not to over-water Blechnum gibbum fern as this may cause root rot.

Fertiliser: Feed Blechnum gibbum ferns with a controlled release fertiliser in early spring. Alternatively, can be either replaced or supplemented this application by liquid feedings on a more regular basis during the warmer months.

Propagation: Commercially, Blechnum gibbum are grown from spores which can take between one and three months to germinate. Occasionally, these ferns produce basal offsets which can be detached from the parents, potted up and treated as mature ferns.

Problems: If overwatered fronds will quickly turn brown and the Blechnum gibbum fern is unlikely to recover without immediate action.

Bronze fronds are not a feature. This can be caused by a lack of ventilation and over watering.

Blechnum gibbum is not overly prone to pest or disease attack however it is possible to see the effects of aphids, caterpillars, slugs, scale or mealybugs.
Treatment: Use appropriate insecticides and follow the instruction on the label.

Note: The root systems of Blechnum gibbum are often used to produce a substrate for growing orchids.

Uses and display: Plant enough of Blechnum gibbum close together and they will make an interesting under tree groundcover. It can be grown in pots also and makes a wonderful focal plant. This fern looks great when used in large pots for display around patio or planted in shaded moist areas in the garden, included in a tropical planting or shown off to great advantage in a courtyard in a decorative pot. It has become popular choices for gardens to add a large, finely textured green presence in their landscape.


Foliage – green
Shape – rosette
Height – 90-120cm (36-48 inch)
Wide – 60-90cm (24-36 inch)

Watering in rest period – moderately
Watering in active growth period – plentifully
Light – bight filtered
Temperature in rest period – min 10°C max 16°C (50-61°F)
Temperature in active growth period – min 18°C max 27°C (64-81°F)
Humidity – high

Hardiness zone: 9b-11

Blechnum gibbumBlechnum gibbumBlechnum gibbumBlechnum gibbumBlechnum gibbumBlechnum gibbum

Ferns, Foliage Plants, Garden Plants, Indoor Plants , , , , ,

OLALA Agency | Software house, Cloud services & Advertising
Sponsored by
Powered on Amazon cloud |