Archive for the ‘Ground cover’ Category

Athyrium niponicum

Common name: Japanese painted fern

Synonymous: Athyrium nipponicum
Asplenium niponicum
Asplenium uropteron
Athyrium uropteron
Athyrium goeringianum

Family: Athyriaceae

Athyrium niponicum

Athyrium niponicum

Distribution and habitat: Athyrium niponicum occurs in temperate regions in shady places in the lowlands. The species originates from East Asia, primarily Japan, North China, Korea and Taiwan.

Description: Athyrium niponicum is a deciduous herbaceous plant with a weeping habit, being one of the most colourful garden ferns. It is a terrestrial fern with creeping rhizomes and with a whorl of fronds growing from the basal rootstock. The fronds are triangular shaped blades, 25-40cm (10-16 inch) tall and 15-25cm (6-10 inch) broad, pinnate, with 6-10 pairs of pinnae 4-9cm (1.5-3.5 inch) long and 2-3cm (0.8-1.2 inch) broad, deeply lobed. The fronds are bright green with a dark red-brown stem in the wild plant. Fertile fronds form the spore-bearing sori on the underside of all of the pinnae.

This fern has a low and mounding habit, slowly spreading by rhizomes to form dense colonies. The fronds are positioned in a way that creates a horizontal layering effect.

The foliage colors of this fern are more intense in the spring or in cooler temperatures or in cooler climates such as the Northwest. Its colorful foliage should be vibrant from early spring until frost, when it will go dormant and reemerge with its excellent foliage the next spring. Mature fronds hold color and contrast with emerging fronds to form a compact clump.

Gardening: Athyrium niponicum has a medium growth rate, being an easy plant to care for. It will make the garden attraction for spring, summer and fall seasons. Leaves may be trimmed to the ground in late fall or early spring.

It is an trouble-free landscape plant that prefers evenly moist soils, but will tolerate long periods of drought once it is established.

Position: Athyrium niponicum can be grown in sheltered location with partial shade to full shade. To obtain best frond color place these ferns in light shade.

Full sun is tolerated with intensive watering. Leaves color up more with a bit of sun exposure, but their growth will be more vertical and less attractive if they receive too much sun.

Soil: Normal or sandy or clay soils will work well for these ferns. Incorporate lots of well-rotted leaf mould, composted pine needles or garden compost into the planting hole. They will perform well in any rich, evenly moist soil. In cold areas in late autumn protect the crown of the plant with a dry mulch of straw or bracken.

Athyrium niponicum is very cold hardy. It goes dormant in winter by wilting its folds and stopping the new growth of fronds in late fall when temperatures drop to freezing points. Then reemerges with its excellent foliage the next spring.

Water: Good irrigation practices are important. Ferns should be kept moist during active growth period. Water thoroughly the ferns and allow the substrate to dry slightly between waterings. It is best to water early in the day to allow the fronds plenty of time to dry before night time.

Ferns need to be kept consistantly moist at all times. They do not however want to be soggy or water logged.

Fertilising: Athyrium niponicum thrives best when are added 5-8cm (2-3 inch) of compost or peat moss to the beds each spring or fall. This treatment should suffice and no additional fertilising is require.

Adding controlled release fertilizer on the soil surface should be done at low rates, as recommended on label. Ferns are sensitive to high salt levels, so moderation should be considerate when decide to fertilise them.

Propagation: Propagation can be done by spring divisions or by planting spores.

Growth habit and color uniformity is not ensured by spore propagation. Surface sow in a pot of sterile compost in a shady part of the greenhouse and keep moist, this is most easily done by putting the pot in a plastic bag. Pot up small clumps of the plants when they are large enough to handle and keep them moist until they are established. Plant out in late spring of the following year. Division in spring as plants come into growth. Larger divisions can be planted straight into their permanent positions whilst smaller clumps are best potted up and kept in a cold frame until they are growing away well.

Excellent selections of Athyrium niponicum may also be produced by clump division. Plants are easily divided in spring, every 3 to 4 years.  A well-grown plant can be separated in early spring into 3-4 divisions and replanted.

Uses: Athyrium niponicum is grown as an ornamental plant in gardens and suits for containers too. It is wonderful for edging the shade border, in the rock garden or in mixed containers. It is suitable to be used in designing woodland gardens, shade gardens or shaded border fronts. Also effective in shaded areas along streams or ponds. It is one of many ferns suitable for the alpine & rock garden. Succeeds in a semi-shaded bog-garden or in damp woodland, also in garden borders in full or part shade. It can be used as groundcover and mass planting and is good for erosion control.

The fronds work well in cut flower arrangements, providing lasting color and soft texture.

Athyrium niponicum is a good companion of other garden plants with which can share the same environmental conditions and contrast in form and texture such as: Hosta ‘Blue Angel’ (Hosta), Brunnera macrophylla (Brunnera-Heartleaf), Chasmanthium latifolium (Northern Sea Oats), Cimicifuga ramosa ‘Hillside Black Beauty’ (Snakeroot-Black), Galium odoratum (Sweet Woodruff), Liriope muscari ‘Big Blue’ (Lily-turf-Blue), Astilbe ‘Rheinland’ (Astilbe-Japanese) or Aquilegia ‘Cardinal’ (Columbine).

Recommended varieties:
Athyrium niponicum var. pictum (Japanese Painted Fern) with pale silvery-green fronds and a bright red stem

Athyrium niponicum var. pictum ‘Red Beauty’ with yellow fronds and a bright red stem

Athyrium niponicum ‘Metallicum’ is noted for its variegated silver, green and red foliage.

Height: 30-60cm (12-23 inch)
Spread: 30-45cm (12-18 inch)
Hardiness zone: 4-9

Athyrium niponicum var. Pictum






Cutting Flowers, Ferns, Garden Plants, Ground cover , , , , , ,

Carex morrowii Variegata

Common name: Silver Variegated Japanese, Japanese Sedge Grass

Family: Cyperaceae

Carex morrowii Variegata

Carex morrowii Variegata

Distribution and habitat: Carex morrowii Variegata is originated in woods from low mountains in Japan.

Description: Carex morrowii Variegata is a clumping, evergreen variegated sedge. This stiff, grass-like sedge will contrasts well with broad-leaved plants. Its clustered leaves, which grow from a rhizomatous rootstock running just below the surface, are up to 30cm (12 inch) long and very narrow. Leaves are yellowish green narrowly striped with white. Flowers are insignificant.
This plant grows more or less continuously, but attractive growth will slow down in the reduced light of the winter.

Houseplant care: Carex morrowii Variegata is a moderate grower and is often used in association with other species to add contrast in shape and colour of the display. When plan to create displays using Carex morrowii Variegata, choose plants needing similar life conditions such as Scindapsus and Maranta species.

Light: Grow the Carex morrowii Variegata in bright filtered light. Inadequate light will dull leaf-colour contrast.

Temperature: Carex morrowii Variegata can tolerate warmth 18-21°C (64-70°F), only if humidity is kept high.

In warm rooms is advisable to stand plants on trays of moist pebbles and mist-spray them regularly. If possible keep winter temperatures down to 10-15°C (50-59°F).

Water: When grown indoors Carex morrowii Variegata should never be overwatered. Throughout the year water moderately, enough to make the mixture thoroughly moist, but allow the top 2cm (0.8 inch) of the potting mixture to dry out completely between waterings.

Fertilising: Apply standard liquid fertiliser once a month during spring and summer only.

Potting and repotting: Use a soil based potting mixture. A 13cm (5 inch) pot is likely to be the biggest pot size required. Move small plants into pots one size larger whenever the tufts of leaves completely cover the surface area of the potting mixture.

Gardening: Carex morrowii Variegata is an hardy evergreen for hardiness zone 5. It is adapted to chalk, clay loam, loam, loamy sand, peat, sandy clay, sandy clay loam, sandy loam, silt loam and silty clay loam soils and prefers high fertility. It should be placed in partial shade. It will grow in full shade and even tolerates full sun in cool climates. Follow a regular watering schedule during the first growing season to establish a deep, extensive root system. It spreads slowly by rhizomes and is quite drought tolerant once established. For a neat appearance, remove old foliage in late winter or early spring, before new growth emerge.

It is seldom necessary to divide clumps, unless more plants are desired. Divide and replant every 2 to 3 years in early spring.

Propagation: Split the mature plants into two or three clumps and plant each separately, preferably in spring. Do not divide a plant into more than three sections; very small clumps rarely grow into healthy plants.

Uses: Carex morrowii Variegata is wonderful as a ground cover especially under trees or as border edgings. It is most effective when grown in large clumps or massed plantings. It is an useful sedge for erosion control, rain garden, rock garden or will naturalize spaces. Makes also an attractive specimen plant or ground cover as waterside plants like Heuchera, Canna, Astilbe, Iris and Tiarella species, especially those with contrasting purple foliage. Create an exotic Asian garden with Acer palmatum (Japanese Maple), Athyrium niponicum (Japanese Painted Fern), Lilium asiatic (Asiatic Lilies) and Peonies species. It is an attractive addition to low lying wetlands, streambeds or near ponds and water features.

Carex morrowii Variegata is the only one from its large genus widely grown indoors being an attractive container plant.

Height: 30-45cm (12-18 inch)
Spread: 45-60cm (18-24 inch)
Hardiness zone: 5-9

Container Grass, Garden Plants, Ground cover, Indoor Plants, Ornamental Grasses & Sedges , ,

Leymus arenarius

Common name: Blue Lyme Grass, Lyme Grass, Sea Lyme Grass, Sand Rye Grass

Family: Poaceae

Synonymous: Elymus arenarius

Leymus arenarius

Leymus arenarius

Distribution and habitat: Leymus arenarius is native to Europe and was naturalised in Asia, Australia, New Zealand and North America. Leymus arenarius is an invasive grass of coastal beaches and dunes where it appears to be spreading quickly and outcompeting the native flora in regions were the plant was naturalised.  Often it appear  in association with Ammophila arenaria. It is well known as an important species in the stabilisation of mobile dunes and widely planted as a sand binder.

Leymus arenarius is a perennial growing to 1.2m (4feet) by 2m (6feet) spreading at a fast rate. It is not frost tender. It is in flower in early summer and the seeds ripen in autumn. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by wind.

Description: Leymus arenarius is a vigorous deciduous to semi-deciduous stoloniferous grass with 60-90 cm (23-35 inch) tall in culture with upright blue-gray blades and spreads wide by rhizomes. His blue-gray wide, ribbon-like foliage often turns tan in fall.

Grown for its display of exceptionally beautiful steel-blue foliage, this is a spreading grass that needs to be used carefully. Arching spikes appear in summer, blueish at fist, that fade to cream. The flowers are not ornamentally significant and sometimes are removed in summer. Leymus arenarius can spread too quickly in a sunny garden bed. Planted in a container the plant still gets the imposing sword shaped leaves that bend as they grow tall and develop the spiky flower heads. It is a cool season grass but tolerant of hot weather. It can become invasive.

Leymus arenarius reaches the maturity in 2-5 years and under ideal conditions can be expected to live for approximately 10 years.

Gardening: Leymus arenarius can tolerate maritime exposure and it is highly tolerant of urban pollution. It will even thrive in inner city environments. It has a fast growth rate.

Cut back the old foliage to the ground in late fall or early spring to encourage new foliage and keep plants fresh looking with good blue colour.

Position: Leymus arenarius can be placed in full sun or light shade. It will cannot grow in the shade. Plant it in full sun and give average to little water .

Soil: Leymus arenarius is suitable for light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. It is suitable for either acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It is able to handle environmental salt.

Water: Leymus arenarius is very adaptable to both dry and moist locations and should do just fine under typical garden conditions. Established plants are very drought tolerant.

Fertilising: Fertilising is generally not needed. Fertilizer causes lush growth that requires more water. If fertilization is needed, a slow release fertilizer can be applied in the spring.

Propagation: Clumps are easily divided in spring or summer. Even small root pieces will grow. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Leymus arenarius can be propagated as well by seed. Sow them in mid spring in site. Just cover the seed with a thin layer of sand. Germination should take place within 2 weeks. If the supply of seed is limited, it can also be sown in mid spring in a cold frame. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in summer.

Note: Leymus arenarius is a very invasive plant, spreading by means of its wide-ranging roots.

Uses: Leymus arenarius is used as an accent plant or a ground cover. It is good for erosion control and sometimes is used to stabilize sand dunes. Will tolerate beachside conditions. Best to contain this in a planter, or use as a groundcover in a large sunny area.

It looks its best when allowed to ramble among other perennial plants in a natural style border where its foliage is combined with flowering plants and is particularly successful in a modern prairie-style planting scheme where a mixture of fairly vigorous perennials are planted as a tall carpet punctuated by paths. It is considered to be drought-tolerant and thus makes an ideal choice for a low-water garden or xeriscape.

Looks stunning in borders and makes a spectacular container plant for a sunny patio.

Foliage of Leymus arenarius is terrific for flower arranging.

Height: 60-90 cm (23-35 inch)
Spread: 60-90 cm (23-35 inch)
Hardiness zones: 4 – 9

Container Grass, Cutting Flowers, Garden Plants, Ground cover, Ornamental Grasses & Sedges , , , , ,

Pilea cadierei

Common name: Aluminum Plant, Watermelon Pilea

Family: Urticaceae

Pilea cadierei

Pilea cadierei

Description and habitat: Pilea cadierei is a fast growing evergreen perennial native to tropical Southeast Asian rainforest. It has been naturalized extensively in many tropical location around the world. It spreads rapidly in its tropical native habitat where it grows as a groundcover.

Description: Pilea cadierei are attractive foliage plants upright-growing. After about a year, however, when it has reached a height of 25-30cm (10-12 inch), it may drop its lower leaves, leaving bare basal stems. Leaves are thin, up to 8cm (3 inch) long, oblog-oval and arranged in opposite pairs. Their edges are slightly incised and the surface has four rows of raised silvery patches between the green vein areas. Tiny flowers may appear at any season but are scarcely noticeable.

Houseplant care: Pilea cadierei is an easy maintenance indoor plant as long as its need for humidity is supplied. Keep Pilea cadierei out of cold or hot drafts.

The main shoots of Pilea cadierei naturally divide into side branches and dense growth is usually automatic. But it may be advisable to nip out over-ling shoots sometimes, thus balancing and encouraging further division. Also, pinch off the flowers when appears in summer.

Light: Pilea cadierei do well in semi-shade and can be grown at a short distance from a window in summer. Avoid very bright light – especially direct sunlight – at all times.

Temperature: These tropical plants like a combination of warmth (16-24°C (60-75°F)) and humidity. Pots should be stood on trays of moist pebbles. Pilea cadierei cannot tolerate temperatures below 13oC (55oF).

Watering: Water sparingly making the entire potting mixture barely moist but never allowing the mixture get too wet. Let the top two-thirds of the mixture dry out between waterings. Use tepid water or, if it is possible, rain water to water Pilea cadierei.

Fertilising: Apply standard liquid fertiliser once every two weeks, from mid-spring through summer only.

Potting and repotting: Use either an equal-parts mixture of peat moss and soil-based potting mixture or a peat-based mixture. Pilea cadierei do not have a large root system and will thrive in 8-10cm (3-4 inch) pot or in shallow pans. Because Pilea cadierei deteriorate, they should not be moved on. Restart from cuttings.

Cultivation: When kept outdoors in the garden, the Pilea cadierei grows hardy to zone 10a to 11. It grows in moist, well-drained soil, preferring loamy soil. In tropical environments Pilea cadierei is popular as a smaller scale ground cover for shady spots in humid climates.

Propagation: Propagate Pilea cadierei by cuttings taken in late spring. Cut the stem just below a node – the place where a leaf is attached. Take young tip cuttings up to 8cm (3 inch) long, dip their cut ends in hormone rooting powder and insert each in a 5-8cm (2-3 inch) pot of gritty rooting mixture (one part of coarse sand or perlite to two of peat moss). Each cutting will normally root in about three to four weeks if placed in a warm, shady position and watered enough to keep the mixture barelly moist. When the cutting is well rooted move it into recommended mixture and treat it as a mature plant.

Foliage on Pilea cadierei plant will discolor in the sun.
Treatment: Locate the plant in the full shade to prevent this.

Discoloured leaves with brown tips and edges are caused by overexposure to light or a sudden drop in temperature.

Excessive leaf fall in winter indicate either overwatering or low temperatures.

Mites can spoil the foliage in hot, dry weather.
Treatment: Use a suitable pesticide and follow manufacturer instructions.

Recommended varieties:
Pilea cadierei ‘Minima’ is a dwarf variety very similar with Pilea cadierei, but it has leaves about half as big as those of the original species and it seldom grows to become any more than 15cm (6 inch) in height.

Usage: Window sill and potted plant are the simplest ways of displaying this plant. Pilea cadierei contrast well with the foliage of other plants with which they may be quite effectively grouped together. Also, Pilea cadierei can be used for hanging baskets or cascading down a wall. Pileas are grown mainly for their highly textured and metallic foliage. A collection of several different varieties would make an attractive display on a window with bright but indirect light.

The love of Pilea cadierei for humidity makes this plant suitable for terrariums.

By using this plant as ground cover it will resemble its natural habitat.

Notes: Sometimes, Pilea cadierei is sold in pet shops as aquatic plat. The plant will survive fine underwater for a few months, maybe even a year, but it will steadily decline until it finally die. Since it is not true aquatics, it cannot survive submerged for long periods of time. Expected life span of Pilea cadierei while submerged is about 4 to 6 months.

Lifespan: Cut back each year and it will last for several years. If it gets too leggy, take cuttings and discard the plant.



Foliage – coloured
Shape – bushy
Height: 25-30cm (10-12 inch)

Watering in active growth period – sparingly
Light – medium
Temperature in active growth period – min 13°C max 24°C (55-75°F)
Humidity – high

Hardiness zone: 10a-11

Foliage Plants, Ground cover, Indoor Plants, Terrarium Plants , ,

Aspidistra elatior

Common name: Cast-Iron Plant, Bar Room Plant

Synonymous: Aspidistra lurida

Family: Asparagaceae

Aspidistra elatior

Aspidistra elatior

Distribution and habitat: Aspidistra elatior is a perennial which grows in wild up to 0.6m (2 feet) height and 0.45m (1.5 feet) width, native to islands in southern Japan. It is a forest plant and occurs in association with species such as Ardisia sieboldii and Castanopsis sieboldii.

Description: Aspidistra elatior has dark green, leathery leaves 38-50cm (15-20 inch) long, which rise from a creeping rhizomatous rootstock lying half-buried in the potting mixture. The long, lance-shaped, glossy, dark green leaves grow directly from a number of short stalks. Inconspicuous, dull-purple flowers are produced at soil level, but these are often hidden by the foliage.

Houseplant care: Aspidistra elatior can withstand poor condition and will survive where few other houseplants could; hence its name Cast-Iron Plant, bestowed in Victorian days when the introduction of gas lightning produced fumes that killed most other plants. It tolerates considerable neglect: tolerant of low light, low humidity, temperature fluctuation and irregular watering. An indoor Aspidistra elatior will, however, respond well to good care.

The brilliant glossy green of Aspidistra elatior leaves can be maintained with occasional spraying or cleaning them with sponge using plain tepid water.

Light: Although Aspidistra elatior may be kept in dark corners and other poorly lit positions, they will produce little growth there, whereas they thrive in medium light – for instance, at a sunless window. The variegated form needs brighter light to maintain leaf colour contrast, but keep the plant out of direct sun light.

Strong light will fade the green colour of the foliage, except in winter when the plants appreciate a spell closer to the window. Also direct sunlight can scorch its leaves.

Temperature: Aspidistra elatior is tolerant of wide range of temperatures, it will flourish equally well in either hot or cold rooms. Average to cool conditions are best suitable for Aspidistra elatior with a minimum of 7oC (45oF) in winter.

Water: Aspidistra elatior need to be watered moderately throughout the year, enough to make the potting mixture barely moist. The top two-thirds of the potting mixture must be allowed to dry out completely before watering again.

A common sign of overwatering in Aspidistra elatior is the appearance of unsightly brown marks on the surface of the leaves.

Fertilising: Apply liquid fertiliser every two weeks during the active growth period to encourage development of new growth.

Potting and repotting: Use a soil based potting mixture. Aspidistra elatior is a slow growing plant and will do best when left alone, needing repotting only at three or four years intervals. An overcrowded plant should be moved into a pot one size larger just as new growth begins in spring. Be sure there are plenty of clay pot fragments in the bottom of the pot for good drainage. Any plant that has reached maximum convinient pot size should be top-dressed with fresh potting mixture every spring.

Gardening: Aspidistra elatior outdoors prefers a shady position in a rich well-drained soil. It tolerates poor soils and drought, though. These plants can withstand temperatures down to about -5°C (23°F) if they are well sited, being killed by frosts of -5 to -10 °C (23-14 °F) or below. Combine Aspidistra elatior with fine leaved blooming shrubs and perennials like Aquilegia species (Columbine), Fuchsia species (Fushcia), Illicium mexicanum (Mexican Anise-tree) and Campanula species (Bellflower) in a shady bed or woodland setting. Purple leaf Heuchera sanguinea (Coral Bells) and Mahonia aquifolium (Oregon Grape Holly) both add contrast and texture to the flat, green leaves of the Aspidistra elatior.

Propagation: Aspidistra elatior propagate by dividing overcrowded clumps in the spring. Each piece of rhizome should carry at least two leaves and several pieces may be planted together in one 10cm (4 inch) pot. Do not feed newly propagated plants; their roots should be encouraged to utilise nutrients founded in the new potting mixture. Otherwise, the needs of the new plants are those of the mature Aspidistra elatior. Regular feeding of liquid fertiliser can begin in the following spring just at the start of the growth period.

Problems: Generally Aspidistra elatior is trouble-free when is positioned out of the sun and is not waterlogged.

Avoid getting chemicals on the foliage. Do not use leaf-shine or other foliage cleaners. Tepid water will do the job of cleaning the foliage.

Mites and scale may cause occasional problems.
Treatment: For mites use an adequate spray pesticide following the instructions on the label.
For scale control examine every crevice for scale and wipe them off with a damp cloth or a fairly stiff brush dipped in soapy water or an appropriate pesticide solution. Then apply the pesticide to the whole plant.

Outdoors, its leaves and roots may be subject to browsing by hoofed mammals such as deer, as well as rodents and rabbits.

Recommended varieties:
Aspidistra elatior ‘Variegata’ is an less common form of Aspidistra elatior; has white or cream coloured stripes of varying widths running the length of the leaves.

Uses: Aspidistra elatior is the only species of this genus grown indoors, being suitable for container or above-ground planter as accent or edging plant. It is a handsome, large-leaved foliage plant, well known for its robust constitution.

Aspidistras can be grown as a ground cover in a shady position by spreading to cover ground and out competing weeds under shrubs or trees. It grows within a woodland garden or in a shady edge. This sturdy, long lasting plant can be used in areas where all else fails; it is always green and can handle deep shade under deck stairs or along foundations that receive almost no sunlight.


Foliage – green
Shape – bushy
Height: 38-50cm (15-20 inch)

Watering in rest period – moderately
Watering in active growth period – moderately
Light – medium
Temperature in rest period – min 7°C max 18°C (45-64°F)
Temperature in active growth period – min 16°C max 27°C (61-81°F)
Humidity – low

Hardiness zone: 7-11

Aspidistra elatior VariegataAspidistra elatior flowers







Foliage Plants, Ground cover, Indoor Plants , , ,

Acorus gramineus

Common name: Grassy-Leaved Sweet Flag, Dwarf sedge, Japanese rush, Japanese sweet flag

Family: Acoraceae

Acorus gramineus

Acorus gramineus

Distribution and habitat: Acorus gramineus is native to Japan in eastern Asia, where it usually occurs in wetlands and shallow water. It can grow fully or partially submerged or in very moist soil, but it will usually only flower when at least partially submerged.

Description:  Acorus gramineus narrow leaves, which grow in a dense clump or tuft rising from a slender rhizome that lies just below the surface of the potting mixture, are up to 45cm (18 inch) long. There is a green slower spathe, but is is barely noticeable since it is so fine that it looks almost like another leaf.

Houseplant care: Acorus gramineus grow more or less continuously, but its active growth will slow down under reduced light.

Light: Medium light or direct sunlight filtered through a translucent blind or curtain will suit Acorus gramineus.

Temperature: An indoor Acorus gramineus will grow well in normal warm room temperatures, but can also tolerate temperatures as low as 4ºC (39ºF). High humidity is essential; stand plants on trays of moist pebbles throughout  the year and mist-spray the leaves during the warm periods.

Water: Because they are marsh plants, Acorus gramineus needs more water than most other types of plants. These plants must never be allowed to dry out at the roots. Water plentifully as often as necessary to keep the potting mixture thoroughly moist. The pot may even  be allowed to stand in shallow saucer of water.

Fertilising: Apply standard liquid fertiliser every two weeks during spring and summer.

Potting and repotting: Use a soil-based potting mixture. In spring move small plant into pots or shallow pans one size larger if their tufts of leaves have completely filled the surface area of the mixture. 13cm (5 inch) pots or half-pots are likely to be the largest size needed.

Gardening: Acorus gramineus when grow outdoor is easily grown in average, medium to wet soils in full sun to part shade. Grows well in both boggy conditions (including very shallow water) and consistently moist garden soils. Scorched leaf tips will occur if soils are allowed to dry out. Appreciates some relief from hot summer sun (e.g., afternoon shade or filtered sun) when grown in hot summer climates. Slowly naturalizes by spreading roots, but is not too aggressive.

Acorus gramineus can be planted in baskets in shallow water. It also makes a useful aquarium plant but is short-lived where water temperatures exceed 22°C (72°C) for long periods. Divide every few years to prevent congestion.

Propagation: Prapagate by separating overcrowded clumps in spring or summer. Carefully pull the clumps apart with the fingers, making sure that a piece of rhizome is attached to each section and treat each divided clump as a mature plant.

Problems: Acorus gramineus has no serious insect or disease problems.

Scorch will occur if soils are not kept consistently moist to wet.

Recommended varieties:
Acorus gramineus ‘Variegatus’ is a variegated-leaved form of Acorus gramineus. It has white stripes on its green leaves.

Acorus gramineus ‘Albovariegatus’ is a variegated-leaved and dwarf form of Acorus gramineus. Its leaves grow rarely much larger than 15cm (6 inch).

Acorus gramineus ‘Ogon’ (Golden dwarf sweet flag) is a dwarf cultivar if Acorus gramineus to 25cm (10 inch) tall and 15cm (6 inch) wide. It has linear fans of glossy, pale green and cream-striped leaves that have an overall golden effect.

Uses: Acorus gramineus can be used as groundcover, in erosion control, rain garden or as a water plant.

Acorus gramineus are generally paludal (marsh plants) and are equally suited to aqua-terrariums and garden ponds, although they will also survive totally submerged.

Acorus gramineus can be used to form mass as ground cover in small areas of water gardens, along streams or ponds or in moist open woodland gardens. It is frequently used around the edges of ponds and water gardens, as well as submerged in freshwater aquaria. Acorus gramineus is ideal for foregrounds in aquariums. Also effective in rock gardens or border fronts or as small landscape accents as long as the soil moisture requirements can be met.

Acorus gramineus is the only one species from genus Acorus often grown indoors. Acorus gramineus provide a pleasant contrast with the more substantial foliage of other house plants.


Foliage – green or coloured
Shape – grassy
Height: 45cm (18 inch)

Watering in active growth period – plentiful
Light – bright filtered
Temperature in active growth period – min 4°C max 24°C (39-75°F)
Humidity – high

Hardiness zone: 5a-10b

Aquarium Plants, Bog Plants, Container Grass, Foliage Plants, Ground cover, Indoor Plants, Ornamental Grasses & Sedges, Submerged (Oxygenating) Plants, Water Plants , , , , , , ,

Peperomia obtusifolia

Common names: Baby Rubber Plant, Pepper Face

Family: Piperaceae

Peperomia obtusifolia

Peperomia obtusifolia

Distribution and habitat: Peperomia obtusifolia is a species of epiphytic flowering plant native to Mexico to northern jungles of South America and the Caribbean. It is an evergreen perennial growing to 25cm (10 inch) tall and broad, with cupped leathery leaves and narrow spikes of white flowers up to 12cm (5 inch) long.

Description: Peperomia obtusifolia has long stems and flashy, glossy, rounded but blunt-edged leaves 8-10cm (3-4 inch) long. Leaf colour is deep purplish green and the stems are slightly purple. Maximum height is about 30cm (12 inch). White flower spikes only 5-8cm (2-3inch) long appear between late spring and early autumn.

Houseplant care: Occasional pinching out of growing points during spring and summer will induce plants to produce more side-shoots and become bushier.
Light: Peperomia obtusifolia with green leaves need to be shaded from the hot sun during the sunniest months, but those with variegated foliage like a few hours of sunshine every day. There for these plants should be placed quite close to a bright window, especially in winter.

Temperature: Peperomia obtusifolia thrive in normal room temperatures. Even when not actively growing, they must have a temperature of at least 13°C (55°F). Despite of their appearance like succulents, they are not desert plants. They need high humidity during the growing season. In very warm rooms the plants will lose their leaves in dryness. It is recommended to keep the plants on trays of moist pebbles on in larger pots of damp peat moss.

Watering: Water the plant only when is clearly needed and then very sparingly. Allow the potting mixture to dry out almost completely between waterings. Too much water even for short periods will result in considerable leaf loss and may even bring on complete collapse of the plants.

The thick, fleshy leaves of these plants allow them to withstand short periods of drought. If at any time the leaves look unusually transparent, this probably indicates that the plant needs water.

Fertilising: Apply standard liquid fertiliser once a month at half-strength from mid-spring to autumn only. Too much feeding will result in soft, untypical growth and eventually the plant  will collapse.

Potting and repotting: Peperomia obtusifolia best grown in a peat-based potting mixture. Because they have little root they will do well in small pots, half-pots, shallow pans, bowls and hanging baskets.
Young plants may need to be moved into pots one size larger in spring. Mature plants in 10 to 13cm (4-5 inch) pots are unlikely to need repotting. All pots should have a shallow layer of clay-pot fragments or other drainage material in the bottom to promote drainage.

Propagation: Peperomia obtusifolia can be propagated from 5-8cm (2-3 inch) long tip cuttings. Take cuttings in spring or early summer and insert several of them in same pot of 5-8cm (2-3 inch) with barely moist equal-parts of peat-moss and coarse sand or perlite. Keep the potted cuttings at a temperature of about 18°C (64°F) in bright light but not in direct sunlight and water them very sparingly. Tip cuttings are likely to root in four to six weeks. Move the rooted new plant into larger pots only when they have completely filled their pots with roots and clearly need more space.

Recommended varieties:
Peperomia obtusifolia ‘Alba’ is a variegated form with pale lemon yellow new leaves, deepening in colour as they age.

Peperomia obtusifolia ‘Albo-marginata’ is a variegated form with silvery white borders on a grey-green leaf.

Peperomia obtusifolia ‘Variegata’ & Peperomia obtusifolia ‘Greengold’ are both variegated forms with patches of cream or yellow.

Peperomia obtusifolia ‘Minima’ is a dwarf form of Peperomia obtusifolia.

Peperomia obtusifolia is susceptible to grey mould (botrytis) that may appear at the base of the stems if the air is too stagnant. Brown-tipped leaves may be caused by sudden drops in temperature.
Treatment: Keep the plant in well ventilated place to avoid grey mold to appear. Remove the affected leaves immediately and always keep the plants away from droughts and cold window-sills.

Overwatering will result in wilting or discoloured leaves or/and stems and leaf root.

Uses:  Peperomia obtusifolia is used in terrariums, mixed planters or in shelves by warm, sunny window.

These houseplants clean the air by emitting high oxygen content, and purifies indoor air by removing chemicals, such as formaldahyde or other toxins.


Foliage – green or variegated
Feature: flowers
Shape – bushy
Height: 30cm (12 inch)

Watering in rest period – sparingly
Watering in active growth period – sparingly
Light – bright filtered
Temperature in rest period – min 13°C max 21°C (55-70°F)
Temperature in active growth period – min 16°C max 24°C (61-75°F)
Humidity – high

Hardiness zone: 10a-11

Peperomia obtusifolia VariegataPeperomia obtusifolia GreengoldPeperomia obtusifolia

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Aglaonema modestum

Common name: Chinese evergreen, Aglaonema

Family: Araceae

Aglaonema modestum

Aglaonema modestum

Distribution and habitat: Aglaonema modestum is rhizomes evergreen plant, native to the tropical swamps and rainforests of southeastern Asia. Aglaonema modestum has lanced-shaped leaves on leaf stalk 30cm (12 inch) long that rise from the central growing point. A plant may occasionally form a short trunk-like stem scarred with circular markings where leaves were once attached, giving the plant up to 60cm (24 inch) height. Mature plants produce in summer or early fall an arum-shaped flower head comprising a white or yellow spathe with central stalked spadix and this is followed by red or orange berries.

Description: Aglaonema modestum is a foliage plant with large, lance-shaped, waxy, undulate, medium green leaves 20cm (8 inch) long and 10cm (4 inch) wide. Some mature plants may produce arum-like flower spathes. Indoors, this plant is grown for the effect created by its handsome foliage rather than for flowers.

Houseplant care:
Light: Aglaonema modestum needs a shaded spot away from direct sun and will tolerate dark position.
Never expose them to direct sunlight which can scorch the leaves.

Temperature: Normally warm room temperatures are suitable. Aglaonema modestum needs a constant temperature, ideally between 16 and 21°C (60-70°F) all year round. Winter temperatures should never drop below 13°C (55°F) and avoid droughts and exposure to gas fumes.

Water: During the active growth period water moderately – enough to make the entire potting mixture moist, but allowing the top 2-3cm (0.78-1 inch) of the mixture to dry between waterings. During the rest period (which may be very short or even non-existent) water only enough to keep the potting moisture from drying out completely.

A high degree of humidity is required by Aglaonema modestum, so stand the plant on a tray of damp pebbles and mist the leaves regularly.

Fertilising: Use standard liquid fertiliser monthly except during the rest period.

Potting and repotting: Use a soil based potting mixture. Move young plants into pots one size larger in spring, but repot older Aglaonema modestum plants only once every two or three years.
Aglaonema modestum do not need large containers; they will thrive in 13 or 15cm (5-6 inch) pots. When maximum convenient size has been reached, top-dress them annually.

Propagation: The best time to propagate is in spring. Plant a basal shoot bearing three or four leaves, preferably with some roots already attached, in a pot containing moisturized mixture of equal part of peat moss and coarse sand or perlite. Enclose the potted shoot in a plastic bag and keep it in medium light. Rooting should occur in six to eight weeks, after which the new plant can be treated as mature.

If an old and unwanted plant is to be broken up, sections of the main stem of the basal shoots can be used for propagation instead of basal shoots. Aglaonema modestum may also be air layered.

Shriveled leaves and brown tips and edges usually indicate low temperatures, dryness or exposure to droughts.
Treatment: Keep the plant always above 13°C (55°F). For extra humidity place the plant on a tray of damp pebbles or mist the leaves and water the plant regularly.

Roots can rot if the potting mixture is kept too wet.
Treatment: Do not over water the Aglaonema modestum.

Pests: Infestation by mealy bug amongst the leaf stalk can be a problem. Red spider will attack if conditions are too dry.
Treatment: spay plants with appropriate pesticide.  Repeat the treatment after 3 days and again 10 days later. If the insect attack persist, try a different pesticide. Daily mist-spraying will help in keeping the plant healthy.

Uses: Aglaonema modestum is used for mass planting, container or above-ground planter, ground cover. It is suitable for houseplant or interiorscape. Its tolerance of shade makes Aglaonema modestum a good plant for problem corners.

Aglaonema modestum emits high oxygen content and purifies indoor air by removing chemicals, such as formaldahyde, benzene or other toxins.

Toxicity: All plant contain Calcium oxalate crystals which can develop skin irritation after contact with cell sap. If chewed, irritation of mouth, lips, throat, and tongue will occur.

Recommended varieties:
Aglaonema modestum Variegatum is a variegated-leaved form with yellow patches on the green.


Foliage – green or variegated
Shape – bushy
Height: 30-60cm (1-2 feet)
Width: 30-90cm (2-3 feet)

Watering in rest period – sparingly
Watering in active growth period – moderately
Light – medium
Temperature in rest period – min 16°C max 24°C (61-75°F)
Temperature in active growth period – min 16°C max 24°C (61-75°F)
Humidity – high

Hardiness zone: 10a-11

Aglaonema modestum Variegatum

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Peperomia caperata

Common Names: Peperomia, Ivy-Leaf Peperomia, Emerald Ripple Pepper

Family: Piperaceae

Peperomia caperata

Peperomia caperata

Distribution and habitat: Peperomia caperata is an epiphytic in the jungles of South America which is their natural habitat.

Description:  Peperomia caperata has heart-shaped, dark green leaves up to 4cm (1.5 inch) long with corrugated surface; the green of leaves tend to look almost black in the base of the corrugations.
The leaf-stalk of Peperomia caperata are red or pink; white flower spikes of varying lengths may be produced throughout summer and autumn. The flowers are not particularly colourful in their own way, but quite charming, reminding one of attenuated Anthuriums or Arum Lilies. They do in fact consisting of a myriad small flowers arranged along arching stems that are sometimes tinted red or brown.

The plant does not normally grow above 25cm (10 inch) high.

Houseplant care: Peperomia caperata should be occasional pruned during the spring and summer to keep the plant bushy.
Light: Peperomia caperata is growing well in good light conditions. A slightly shaded position away from direct sun is ideal during the summer months, but in winter give it much light as possible.

Peperomia caperata thrive under fluorescent light and makes ideal specimen for bottle gardens and terrariums.

Temperature: Peperomia caperata need an average temperatures, with a winter minimum of 10°C (50°F).

Provide a humid atmosphere from spring to fall. Plunge the pot in moistened peat or place the pot on damp pebbles and mist the plant twice a day, once in the morning and once in the evening. In winter ensure that there is some ventilation, but avoid droughts.

Water: Water sparingly at all times. Allow the compost to dry out between waterings and keep it almost dry throughout the winter. Water form beneath or carefully from above – the stem rot very easily – and use tepid water.

Fertiliser: Peperomia caperata needs occasional liquid fertiliser at half-strength from late spring to early autumn.

Potting and repotting: Peperomia caperata should be repotted annually in spring but the maximum pot size necessary is 9cm (3.5 inch). Peperomia caperata has very small root and can be potted in half-pots, shallow pans, bowls or hanging baskets. Use a peat-based potting mixture. All pots should have a layer of drainage material in the bottom to promote drainage and prevent plants from being exposed to over-watering.

Propagation: Peperomia caperata can be divided at potting time in spring. They are removed and separated into smaller pieces, each with a few roots attached.

Leaf or stem cuttings can also be taken in the spring or summer. The lower leaves of the shoots are removed and a cut is made below the bottom node (joint). They are then laid on a bench for an hour or two to allow a protective corky skin to form over the cuts. They are then inserted in a propagating case with bottom heat of 21-24°C (70-75°F). It is best not to seal the top completely, as the plants are semi-succulent in nature and excessive humidity is detrimental. When enough roots have formed, cuttings can be planted in 8cm (3 inch) pots or in hanging baskets. Tip cuttings are likely to root in four to six weeks. Leaf cuttings may take a little longer.

Overwatering will result in wilting or discoloured leaves and/or stem and leaf rot.

Grey mold (botrytis) will appear at the base of stem if the air is too stagnant. Brown-tipped leaves may be caused by sudden drops in temperature.
Treatment: Remove the affected leaves immediately and always keep the plant away from droughts and cold window-sills.

Uses: Peperomia caperata can be used in terrariums, mixed planters or in shelves by warm, sunny window.

Peperomia caperata makes a perfect foil for larger variegated Peperomias.

In frost-free gardens, Peperomia caperata can be used as ground-covers.

Recommended varieties:

Peperomia caperata ‘Emerald Ripple’ is a shorter plant with smaller waxy leaves in a denser cluster.

Peperomia caperata ‘Little Fantesy’ is a dwarf form.

Peperomia caperata ‘Variegata‘ (also known as Peperomia caperata ‘Tricolor’) has smaller leaves.


Foliage – colored
Features: flowers
Shape – bushy
High: 10-25cm (4-10 inch)

Watering in rest period – sparingly
Watering in active growth period – moderately
Light – bright filtered
Temperature in rest period – min 13°C max 21°C (55-70°F)
Temperature in active growth period – min 16°C max 24°C (61-75°F)
Humidity – high

Hardiness zone: 10-12

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Gibasis geniculata

Common name: Tahitian Bridal Veil

Family: Commelinaceae

Gibasis geniculata

Gibasis geniculata

Description: Gibasis geniculata is a charming, hardy, cascading house foliage for hanging baskets or pots. Foliage in dotted with tiny white blossoms. Leaves colour is dark green with purple underneath.

Uses: Gibasis geniculata is a wonderful plant to grow indoors or in a fernery. Also attractive as a ground cover, potted plant, or as an accent plant.

Light: Gibasis geniculata requires a protected site and shelter from direct sunlight.

Water: Water and fertilise on a regular basis.

Planting: Cultivate the soil before planting. Dig hole twice the width of the container. Remove the plant from container and place it into the hole so the soil level is the same as the surrounding ground.

Gibasis geniculata proper care:

  • Indoor filtered light
  • Part shade
  • Hanging basket
  • Warm position
  • Moderate watering
  • Well drained soil
  • Fertilise regularly
  • Hardiness zones: 9b-13
  • Size: 0.6m (1.9 ft.) tall ; 0.75m (2.4 ft.) wide

Although a hardy plant, Gibasis geniculata does need a bit of care to achive best results.

Foliage – green
Shape – bushy

Watering in active growth period – moderately
Light – bright filtered
Temperature in active growth period – min 15C max 30C
Humidity – high

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