Archive for the ‘Cycads’ Category

Dioon edule

Common name: Chestnut Dioon, Virgin’s Palm, Mexican Cycad, Mexican Blue Chamal

Family: Zamiaceae

Synonymous: Dioon aculeatum
Dioon imbricatum
Dioon strobilaceum
Dioon strobilosum
Macrozamia littoralis
Macrozamia pectinata
Platyzamia rigida
Zamia maeleni
Zamia friderici-guilielmi
Zamia macleani
Zamia rigida

Dioon edule

Dioon edule

Distribution and habitat: Dioon edule is endemic to the eastern coast of Mexico. It commonly grows in tropical deciduous thorn forests and oak woodlands. They are usually found at an altitude between sea-level and 1500m (5000 feet) in harsh areas including exposed, shallow soils. Most of the areas in which Dioon edule grows are subjected to very dry climates and frequent brush fires which impact their survival and distribution.

Description: Dioon edule is a medium-sized Cycad with rather stiff, straight, light to blue-green leaves 100-200cm (39-78 inch) long which, as in all Cycads, are large and divided, giving the plant the appearance of a palm or tree-fern. Each leaf bears 70 to 150 pairs of narrow leaflets, which measure around 12cm (5 inch) in length and are sometimes slightly hairy. Opposing leaflets are arranged at 180° on rachis, not overlaping. The basal leaflets are reduced to spines. The petiole is spine-free for the first 5cm (2 inch) from the base. The trunk is made up mainly of storage tissue, with very little true wood and in this species may either stand erect or lie on the ground. This trunk is usually unbranched or sparsely branched and may reach 4m (13 feet) of height under optimal conditions and 20-50cm (8-20 inch) in diameter. Dioon edule specifically has the ability to contract its stem underground as it grows — thus maintaining relativity in the amount of trunk exposed. As the plant gets older and grows a clump of taller trunk-stems, the leaf fronds are held more upright.

The Dioon edule are dioecious (presenting separate male and female plants) with a sex ratio distribution approximately 3:1 male/female. Male-gendered plants produce elongated woolly pollen cones, pale brown, 15-40cm (6-16 inch) long and 6-10cm (2.5-4 inch) diameter. Female cones are more egg-shaped, fuzzy, pale grey and very decorative, 20-35cm (8-14 inch) long and 12-20cm (5-8 inch) diameter. The seed cones entirely resemble a pineapple in form but the scales are feather-like and soft to the touch. A mature female cone may weigh 1-2kg and contain up to 200 or more seeds. The female cone cycle is approximately two years from initiation, pollination to dehiscence. Eventually the cone unravels to reveal nut sized seeds with a thin leathery skin. Seeds are ovoid, cream or white, 25-45mm long and 20-30mm wide.

Dioon edule is the most widely cultivated species in this genus.

Gardening: The leaflets of Dioon edule taper to a sharp point. It is recommended to plant it away from footpaths and walkways. Wear heavy gloves when handling or working close to Dioon edule to avoid getting jabbed by the sharp points of the leaflets.

They are long lived and slow growing and a plant with 30cm (12 inch) of stem can be quite old (20-40 or more years). Dioon edule is considered easy to grow and a good choice for low-maintenance landscapes.

Position: Plant Dioon edule in sunny, well drained position in sub-tropical or temperate areas. It is light to moderate frost tolerant to about -12°C (10°F), but only for a short period of time (up to 4 days) and only when mature and well established plant. Dioon edule is one of the most cold hardy cycads.
They thrives and grows best in partial shade, especially in hotter climates.

Soil: They are very adaptable plants to just about any soil except muddy, non-draining clay. They prefer well drained, gritty soil with plenty of water, especially in dry weather.

Irrigation: In cultivation it prefers moist soil with good drainage for optimal growth. But they are eventually very drought resistant.
Watering during summer is beneficial and unimpeded air movement is important to avoid foliage being damaged by excessive wet.

Fertilising: Naturally undemanding for nutrients, Dioon edule responds very well to regular applications of fertilizer. Growth can be greatly improved through the application of fertilizers. Can be used slow release fertiliser to really kick them on. These plants will love a regular feed with liquid fertiliser, as it is both absorbed through the foliage and the soil.

Mulch well when plant them in the garden – mulch conditions the soil, protects roots and saves water.

Containers: Dioon edule does well in containers and can be kept for many years in the same container. Being pot-bound does not usually affect they health adversely, but is does tend to slow its growth. Although container grown plants are unlikely to produce any seed.

Using Dioon edule in planters require same consideration given to container grown plants.

Light: Dioon edule can be kept indoors in a brightly lit spot or in a conservatory or greenhouse.

Temperature: Dioon edule makes a perfect specimen plant for the brighter conservatory or glasshouse, tolerating dry air, high temperatures, occasional light frosts and periods neglect if necessary. Slowly adjust them to full sun and keep them protected from frost and wind if possible.

Watering: During the active growth period water these plants moderately, enough to make the mixture moist throughout at each watering and allowing the top 5cm (2 inch) or so of the mixture to dry out before watering again. During any rest period that occur in cold season, give the Dioon edule only enough water to prevent the potting mixture from drying out completely.

Please note that container grown plants will need more watering than plants in the ground.

Fertiliser: Applications of fertiliser should be made about every four weeks during the growing season.

Potting and repotting: Use a well draining potting mix. Can be added some sand, perlite or vermiculite to improve drainage or use a specific cacti & succulent potting mix. Repot these plants in containers one size larger in spring before the start of active growth only if needed. Do not choose a huge pot in the hope the plant will grow faster, as it would not. Most small plants will grow well in 8 or 10cm (3-4 inch) pots, medium plants will often be suited to 12 to 14cm (4.7-5.5 inch) pots, and large plants will need bigger pots to suit.

After repotting, water in the plants really well  to get air bubbles out of the soil, as roots die when they come into contact with air bubbles. This might cause them to die back, prohibits them from thriving and might even cause death. It is one of the most important things to do when repotting these plants.

Propagation: Dioon edule can be propagated by fresh seed. It is among the easiest plants to germinate.

Dioon edule can be also propagated by division and replanting of the offesets grown at the base of mature plants.

Dioon edule problems are usually related to stem and root rot which is usually caused by over-watering or by planting Cycads in soil that does not drain freely. This problem is easily circumvented by carefully choosing planting locations and by watering efficiently.

Scale insects are the most common pest.
Treatment: Look over the plant often for scale and treat any infestation immediately with insecticide.

Caterpillars may chew on the foliage.
Treatment: Use an adequate insecticide.

Notes: Dioon edule are rarely seen in gardens and are an endangered species. These ‘living fossils’ have been around since the time of the dinosaurs, although they are no longer as numerous as they once were.
Dioon edule can live to be 1,500 years old and eventually achieve a trunk height of 3m (10 feet), this medium-sized cycad is very slow-growing.

Toxicity: Since the skin of Dioon edule seeds is reportedly carcinogenic it is strongly advisable to use gloves when handling the seeds and caution against eating any parts of any Cycad!

Uses: Dioon edule can be used in many ways in a landscape. Large paired plants in containers or feature beds that flank driveways, doorways or gates. A single large specimen makes an excellent feature plant in a landscape that emulates a tropical or desert setting. Use Dioon edule to substitute for a true palm where a large crown is desired, but without a tall trunk. It can be a spectacular accent in a small garden where space is limited. It also makes an impressive understory to a larger tree or structure that allows at least partial sunlight to filter through. It is a perfect addition to accent a xeric landscape. Also it makes a beautiful specimen for large tubs or containers.

Height: 3m (10 feet)
Width: 0.7 – 1.7m (2-5.5 feet)
Hardiness zone: 8b-11

Cycads , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Cycas revoluta

Common name: Sago palm, King Sago, Sago Cycad, Japanese Sago Palm

Family: Cycadaceae

Cycas revoluta

Cycas revoluta

Distribution and habitat: Cycas revoluta is a species of gymnosperm in the family Cycadaceae, native to southern Japan. It is found in thickets on hillsides, usually between 100 and 500m (330-1650 feet) altitude.

Cycas revoluta is one of the oldest cycads and most primitive of plant families still living today, an ancient plant which dates back to 200 million years ago (the age of dinosaurs). It grows up to 100 years and is semi-tropical plant related to conifers, but looking like a palm.

Description: Cycas revoluta belongs to a group of plants palm-like which are among the most primitive of flowering plants. This species is slow-growing. The leaves, which are feathery-looking but quite stiff and hard, are arranged in a loose rosette. Each leaf is up to 90cm (35 inch) long and is borne on a short-spined, four-angled stalk 8-10cm (3-4 inch) long. The big leaf is itself divided into many 8-15cm (3-6 inch) long, needle-like leaflets, which are arranged  in closely packed chevron-fashion on a central rib. Some of the leaves stand almost vertical, but most of them arch outward. They rise from the dome of oddly shaped, rather pineapple-like base with rusty, felted covering. This base, which sits on top of the potting mixture, contains a reserve of water upon which the plant can draw in case of dry conditions. Flowers do not develop on plants that are grown indoors.

The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by insects and wind. The female inflorescence is feather like, later forming a tightly packed seed head. The male cone is pineapple shaped.

Houseplant: Cycas revoluta is a very slow growing. When grown as potted specimens, Cycas revoluta may add only one set of new leaves every year or two and no much visible growth. Because of its slow rate of growth, it is also quite popular as a bonsai plant.
Over many years Cycas revoluta develops a substantial trunk and is a long-lived plant. Fifty-plus year-old plants are not uncommon for this species.

Pruning can be done anytime to remove dead fronds.
This plant has sharp needle-like leaflets, use caution when handling it.

Light: In order to produce leaves, Cycas revoluta must be given bright light all year long, with or without direct sunlight (it will do equally well either way). Do not attempt to grow the plant in medium or poor light as it will not thrive in such conditions.

The leaves can bleach somewhat if moved from indoors to full sun outdoors. Slowly accommodate the plant to the outdoor sun by place it in shaded position for the first two weeks.

Temperature: Normal room temperatures are suitable. These plants, however, are extremelly tolerant of apparently adverse temperature and atmosferic conditions. They can tolerate relatively low humidity and they are not harmed by temperatures falling as low as 13°C (55°F).

Water: During the active growth period (which is virtually all year) water these plants moderately, enough to make the mixture moist throughout at each watering and allowing the top centimetre (0.4 inch) or so of the mixture to dry out before watering again. During any rest period that may occur – possibly because of inadequate winter light – give the Cycas revoluta only enough water to prevent the potting mixture from drying out completely.

Feeding: Apply a liquid fertiliser about once a month from early spring until early autumn.

Potting and repotting: Use a soilbased potting mixture with the addition of a one-third portion of coarse sand or a substance such as perlite for extra drainage. Move these plants on  to pots one size larger only when repotting is needed – roughly, when the pineapple-like base of the plant covers about two-thirds of the entire surface of the potting mixture. Repotting should not be necessary more often than about once in every two or three years.

Gardening: Cycas revoluta is a very hardy plant, tolerating dry periods and light frosts. It is heavily promoted commercially as a landscape plant. If the climate is not characterised by frosty winters, then growing a Cycas revoluta in the ground is certainly an option. Obviously palms that grow in the ground have less maintenance requirements and can grow much taller than pot-bound specimens.

Pruning leaves should be done at least once a year. Oldest and lowest leaves eventually have brown tips or turn brown (to allow the plant energy to go to growing new leaves) and should be removed. Cut as close to the trunk as possible.

Position: Cycas revoluta grows well in full sun or light shade. While it will grow in shade and perform quite well in part-shade it can often become leggy and more disease-prone without at least half a day of full-sun.

Soil: It grows best in sandy, well-drained soil, preferably with some organic matter, although these durable plants seem to grow in almost anything. However, it needs good drainage or it will rot.
Plant Cycas revoluta slightly above the soil line and not in a hole or depression which retains water or is swampy. They much prefer to be on the dry than the wet side.

Irrigation: . If planted in the garden, water when dry, but do not keep continuously wet.
Established plants are fairly drought-tolerant.

Fertilising: Fertiliser is generally applied during spring and late summer. Too little plant food is far better than too much. If organic or slow release fertilizer is used, do not allow any to fall into the plant crown which is protecting the formation of future leaves.

Propagation: Cycas revoluta are propagated commercially from seed. This type of propagation is particulary slow process with these plants, however. Most indoor gardening experts agree that it is not feasible for the home gardener.

Mature plants grow sometimes offsets – called pups – that can be separated and planted into their own containers.

Cycas revoluta problems are usually related to watering. Yellowing leaves are often caused by overwatering. Follow the watering instructions to avoid crown rot. It is almost impossible to treat and plants may not recover.

Scale insects are the most common pest.
Treatment: Look over the plant often for scale and treat any infestation immediately with insecticide.

Notes: Cycads were the first seed plants on earth.
Cycadales are one of the four major groups of gymnosperms and are the most primitive extant gymnosperm order. This ancient Cycads family (Zamiaceae), are known to have lived in the Pangaea, and Permian era, over 200 million years ago – even before the dinosaurs roamed the earth. The Age of Cycads, began during the Triassic Period of the earth’s geological history reached its peak during the 60 million years of the Jurassic Period and ended during the Cretaceous Period, about 95 million years ago. There are 9 groupings of cycads: Bowenia, Cerotozamia, Cycas, Dioon, Encephalartos, Macrozamia, Microcycas, Stangeria, and Zamia. There are about 300 species of cycads.

Cycads are dioecious (meaning that male and female reproductive structures are borne on separate plants). Though classified as woody plants, they have a pachycaul stem, a thick, soft stem or trunk made up of storage tissue with very little true wood. The cycads have been classified as ‘gymnosperms’ however recent studies suggest some members are closer to the flowering plants than to other ‘gymnosperms’.

The Cycadales and Ginkgoales are unique among seed plants in having motile sperm. The mature seeds are dispersed by both birds and squirrels, which eat the fleshy outer coating, but not the seed itself.

Uses: Beautiful specimens can be grown in pots and urns and they can look extremely elegant when used as visual enticing entrance plants.

It has a beautiful prehistoric look and works superbly as a statement plant in garden beds or as an under planting in subtropical and modern landscapes. Cycas revoluta is a plant that works beautifully in drought resistant garden designs.

Toxicity: All parts of this plant are poisonous, especially the seeds. Keep it out of the reach of children and pets that may play with or ingest this plant.



Foliage – green
Shape – rosette
Height: 3.5-5m (11-16 feet)
Spread: 2.5-3m (8-10 feet)

Watering in rest period – sparingly
Watering in active growth period – moderately
Light – bright
Temperature in rest period – min 13°C max 24°C (55-75°F)
Temperature in active growth period – min 16°C max 24°C (61-75°F)
Humidity – low

Hardiness zones: 8b-11

Cycas revoluta pottedCycas revoluta - new leafCycas revoluta - pups

Cycas revoluta - male coneCycas revoluta - female flowerCycas revoluta - seed forming

Cycas revoluta - trunkCycas revoluta - new growth of leavesCycas revoluta- seeds and new growth

Cycads, Foliage Plants, Garden Plants, Indoor Plants , , , ,

Zamia furfuracea

Common name: Cardboard Plant, Cardboard Sago, Jamaican Sago, Mexican Cycad, Cardboard Cycad, Cardboard Palm

Family: Zamiaceae

Synonymous: Palmifolium furfuraceum
Palma pumila
Zamia crassifolia
Zamia gutierrezii
Zamia vestita
Zamia fusca
Zamia maritima

Zamia furfuracea

Zamia furfuracea

Distribution and habitat: Zamia furfuracea is a cycad native to Mexico in a small mountain range in central Veracruz. This species grows in areas varying from generally arid thorn scrub to sandy soils and in limestone sea cliffs.

Description: Zamia furfuracea has long folds which arch from a central crown. The fronds carry tightly packed leaflets which give the plant a fern-like appearance. The thick leathery leaves are pinnate and have 13 cm (5 inch) long by 3cm (1 inch) wide oval leaflets. They are slightly fuzzy and feel a little like cardboard when rubbed. Occasionally, the leaflets are toothed toward the tips. The circular crowns of leaves resemble fern or palm fronds.

The plant has a short, sometimes subterranean trunk up to 20cm (8 inch) broad and high, usually with no ramification and marked with scars from old leaf bases. It grows very slowly when young, but its growth accelerates after the trunk matures. This fleshy trunk serves as a water reservoir in times of drought. When the plant is young, the fronds appear to rise directly from the ground.

This plant produces a rusty-brown cone in the center of the female plant. The egg-shaped female (seed-producing) cones and smaller male (pollen-producing) cone clusters are produced on separate plants. Even very young plants produce these interestingly shaped cones.
When ripe, the female cone breaks to reveal an array of tightly packed, bright red 3cm (1 inch) seeds.

Houseplant: In temperate regions it is commonly grown as a houseplant and, in subtropical areas, as a container or bedding plant outdoors. It is qualified as an easy to grow plant, but has a slow growth rate.

Specimens can be grown indoors in shallow containers. In this way, the partially exposed trunk (tuberous stem) and the airy crown of leaves create a striking bonsai specimen.

Light: Zamia furfuracea grows in bright light to full sun. Turn the plant regularly in front of the window so that it will grow evenly. Otherwise, the stems will grow toward the sunlight, creating a lop-sided plant.

Temperature: Normal room temperatures are suitable for this cycad year-round ranging between 16-24°C (60-75°F).
This plant thrives in average to low humidity condition.

Water: Water only when the potting mixture is completely dry, pour water till it flows out of the bottom of the pot. It is drought resistant, being a semi-succulent that stores water in its trunk. Do not allow the potting mixture to get too dry, though, or this plant may drop its leaves.

Avoid getting water on the base of the plant or the foliage because can cause Zamia furfuracea to rot. Water the potting mix only.

Fertiliser: Feed once in spring and again in summer with a slow-release fertiliser.

Potting and repotting: Repotting Zamia furfuracea should not be necessary more often than about once in every two or three years as the plant does not like to be disturbed. Use a heavy container to prevent toppling, because these plants can get top-heavy.  Move the plants into one size larger pot in spring when the plant becomes root-bound; use an equal parts good-quality potting mix and sand for good drainage.

After reaching maximum pot size, top-dress these plants by replacing the top 5-8cm (2-3 inch) of potting mixture with fresh one.

Gardening: This plant is easy to care for. They are fairly salt- and drought-tolerant, but should be protected from extreme cold.

Position: Zamia furfuracea do well in full sun or shade, but not in constant deep shade. The crown of this plant will grow erect in full sun and horizontal in shade.

Soil: It tolerates a variety of well-drained soils.

Irrigation: Watering should be done with moderation because plants are drought-tolerant once they become established.

Fertilising: Needs fertilizer only once a year in spring: mulch with organic material (bark and leaf) or provide palm fertilizer.

Propagation: Zamia furfuracea plant can be reproduced by seed. The fleshy, brightly crimson-colored seeds are produced by the female plants. The germination process is very slow and difficult to achieve in cultivation. Seedlings are slow-growing and will take years for them to grow tall. Zamia furfuracea propagation is not really feasible for the home gardener. Zamia furfuracea is popular cycad usually available in nurseries or florist shops.
Not all seeds collected from a mature plant are fertile unless they are cross-pollinated.

Notes: Zamia furfuracea is a “living fossil” plants, its kind surviving on earth since the time of the dinosaurs.
Because seed germination is a very slow and difficult, many plants sold for horticultural use are illegally collected in the wild, leading to the species being classified as vulnerable in its natural habitat.

Uses: Zamia furfuracea is a great houseplant tough enough to survive occasional neglect and harsh indoor environments. It makes a great dramatic accent or specimen plant. Also it makes a great container plant for the patio or deck.

It is use for border, mass planting, container or above-ground planter, in mixed foundation plantings or in perennial beds.

This cycad is salt resistant and can be used in beachside plantings.

Toxicity: All parts of the plant including seeds are poisonous to animals and humans. The toxicity causes liver and kidney failure, as well as eventual paralysis. Dehydration sets in very quickly. No treatment for the poisoning is currently known. Protect pets and children to never eat or chew any part of this plant.


Foliage – green
Shape – rosette
Height: 0.6-1.5m (2-5 feet)
Spread: 1.5-2.5m (5-8 feet)

Watering in rest period – sparingly
Watering in active growth period – moderately
Light – bright filtered
Temperature in rest period – min 13°C max 24°C (55-75°F)
Temperature in active growth period – min 16°C max 24°C (60-75°F)
Humidity – low

Hardiness zones: 9b – 11

Zamia furfuracea Zamia furfuracea - conesZamia furfuracea - seeds

Cycads, Foliage Plants, Garden Plants, Indoor Plants , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Macrozamia communis

Common name: Common Burrawang, Burrawang

Family: Zamiaceae

Macrozamia communis

Macrozamia communis

Distribution and habitat: Macrozamia communis is a cycad found on the east coast of Australia. Locally abundant in wet to dry sclerophyll forests, in coastal areas they grow in sandy soils and in nearby coastal ranges they grow in gravelly loams. It naturally grows in a temperate climate with warm to hot summers and cool to cold winters with frosts occurring in some areas. In its habitat it seems to prefer partially-shaded locations under an open Eucalyptus forest canopy.
Seed cones are formed after fire. Male and female seed cones are on separate plants and the large female seeds are ripe when red or yellow.

Description: Macrozamia communis is a palm-like shrub with long, gracefully arching, glossy green fronds (up to 50cm (20 inch) or more in a full grown specimen) with sharp, pointed leaflets in two regular rows, the lower few progressively reduced and rather spine-like. The mature female plant develops a number of large, football like cones about 25cm (10 inch) long. The male cones can measure up to 45cm (18 inch) with up to ten being borne per mature plant.

Macrozamia communis is a medium to large Cycad with a woody trunk up to 30-80cm (12-31 inch) in diameter and 0.3-2m (1-6.5 feet) tall. The trunk is typically underground, but may be emergent where growing on shallow soils or on rocky sites. The long fronds are arranged in a gracefully rounded crown arching out from the central trunk.

Houseplant care: Macrozamia communis are very slow-growing and potted specimens will grow to the portions of these in the open.

This plant has spines or sharp edges; use extreme caution when handling.

Light: Provide bright light for Macrozamia communis at all times. Well-estabilished plants are able to tolerate exposure to full sunlight.

Temperature: Normal room temperatures should be suitable, as long as plenty of fresh air is available. Standing the potted plants on trays of moist pebbles helps to maintain the right level of humidity. The ideal temperature range is about 10-27°C  (50-81°F), though these plants can tolerate temperatures above and below this range without any apparent ill-effects.

Water: Water the plants liberally during hot weather, 27°C (81°F) or over. At other times, water moderately, enough to keep the potting mixture moist, but do not wet.
It is also a good idea to mist-spray the foliage occasionally.

Fertilising: Apply a dressing of complete fertiliser fortnightly during the growing season.

Potting and repotting: Use a soil-based potting mix. Place some broken pot pieces or other drainage material in the bottom of the pot to ensure adequate drainage.
As these plants are such slow growers they seldom need repotting. If necessary, repot in late spring.

Propagation: Propagation is normally by seed (germination will occur in 6-24 months) or from recently germinated seedlings gathered from beneath female plants. Early seedling growth is very slow. The amateur gardeners is best advised, however, to avoid this lengthy procedure and buy an established young plant.

Mealybugs are the only major insect pest affecting Macrozamia communis.
Treatment: This can be easily controlled by the application of insecticide about twice during the growing season.

Scale insects may occasionally infest the crown.
Treatment: Apply adequate insecticide about twice during the growing season.

Toxicity: All parts of Macrozamia communis plant are poisonous if ingested.

Notes: Macrozamia means literally ‘large Zamia’, Zamia being a tropical genus containing some of the Cycads earliest defined their by botanists. Cycad is a term used for a group of plants which, despite their appearance, are actually more closely related with conifers. They are believed to be geologically ancient, with a fossil record going back more than 150 million years. Like conifers, they bear their seeds on scales arranged in large cones (Cycas is an exception as its scales do not form a proper cone) and all Cycads have their pollen bearing scales arranged in cones. They are dioecious – that is, there are separate male and female plants – and cones of both sexes can be extremely large (up to 80cm (31 inch) long in some cases).

Macrozamia communis is fire-retardant.

Uses: Macrozamia communis make a very decorative container plants for indoors – if the position is very airy and well lit – or for verandahs and patios.

It is drought-tolerant and it is suitable for xeriscaping.


Foliage – green
Shape – upright
Height: 1.8-2.4m (6-8 feet)

Watering in rest period – sparingly
Watering in active growth period – moderately
Light – bright filtered
Temperature in rest period – min 10°C max 21°C (50-70°F)
Temperature in active growth period – min 18°C max 27°C (64-81°F)
Humidity – high

Hardiness zone: 8b-11

Macrozamia communis - conesMacrozamia communis - seed







Cycads, Foliage Plants, Indoor Plants , ,

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