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Brunfelsia pauciflora

Common name: Yesterday-Today-and-Tomorrow, Morning-Noon-and-Night,Kiss Me Quick, Brazil Raintree

Family: Solanaceae

Synonymous: Brunfelsia calycina (basionym)
Brunfelsia pauciflora var. calycina
Franciscea pauciflora (basionym)

Brunfelsia pauciflora

Brunfelsia pauciflora

Distributiona and habitat: Brunfelsia pauciflora is a species of flowering semi-deciduous shrub, endemic to Brazil, growing in light woodland and thickets. This shrub is growing up to 3m (10 feet) with a 3.6m (12 feet) spread. It is cultivated for its fragrant flowers. The species name, bonodora, is from the Latin, and means ‘sweet-smelling’.

Description: Poted Brunfelsia pauciflora are small shrubs, up to 60cm (24 inch) high with a 30cm (12 inch) spread, that have 8-15cm (3-6 inch) long lance-shaped, glossy, yet leathery leaves and showy, often fragrant, flowers. Its common name, Yesterday-Today-and-Tomorrow, comes from the way its flowers are changing in colour form one day to the next. Each bloom opens violet-purple, fade to pale lavender-blue, becomes almost white and is dead by the fourth day. Flat, five-lobed flowers are up to 5cm (2 inch) across, with a small, white, puckered eye – the entry point for insects to a short tube behind the floral surface. Flowers appear in clusters of up to 10 on the end of long stems, but open singly. Under favourable conditions, Brunfelsia pauciflora can bloom throughout the year.

Houseplant care: Brunfelsia pauciflora is the only one species from Brunfelsia genus grown indoors. Prune old plants drastically in spring or just at the end of the rest period if they have one. When pruning take out as much as half the previous year’s growth. To encourage more vigorous bushy growth, pinch out the growing tips – this can be done any time.

Light: Bright light, including three or four of direct sunlight daily, is essential throughout the year for satisfactory flowering.

Temperature: During the active growth period normal room temperature is suitable. Stand pots on trays of damp pebbles for increased humidity. Where warm, humid condition are provided in winter, these plants will not have an appreciable rest period, but they will not suffer as a result. If such condition are not provided, move Brunfelsia pauciflora to a really cold possition – ideally between 10°C (50°F) and 13°C (55°F) – so they can have at least a four to six weeks rest.

Watering: In the active growth period water moderately, enough to make the potting mixture thoroughly moist, but allow the top 1cm (0.4 inch) of the potting mixture to dry out between waterings. If plants are given a rest, water them only enough during the rest period to keep the potting mixture from drying out completely.

Feeding: Give actively growing plants an application of standard liquid fertiliser every two weeks to promote vigorous growth.

Poting and repotting: Use a soil based potting mixture. Brunfelsia pauciflora flower best when their roots are confined in small pots – 13-15cm (5-6 inch) at most. Repot in fresh potting mixture every spring, but do not increase pot size. Simply replace the old mixture with new.

Gardening: Brunfelsia pauciflora are long-lived, romantic flowering shrubs. Warm subtropical gardens are ideal, but the plants will also flourish in colder climates. They will even endure light frost, but will be deciduous during the cooler months. Outside of its hardiness zone, grow Brunfelsia pauciflora in a pot so it can be moved indoors when temperatures drop.
They are quick and easy to grow. No pruning is needed for garden plants except to control growth and spreading. A light trim after flowering will help keep it tidy yet bushy.

Position: Brunfelsia pauciflora do best in full sun but needs some shady protection during the heat of the day to look their best. Also do well in filtered shade.

Soil: Provide rich, moist, but well drained soil with liberal quantities of compost worked into it. Brunfelsia pauciflora prefer acidic soil with a pH balance just below the neutral 7, so mulch with pine-needles, moss or acidic compost around their bases.

Irrigation: Keep the soil moist around the Brunfelsia pauciflora , but not overly wet. Do not allow the soil to dry out. If rain is not imminent, water the soil, especially during the hot summer days.
Container plants should be checked daily for moistness. Reduce watering plants in containers in fall.

Fertiliser: Fertilise plants with 10-10-10 (nitrogen-phosphate-potassium) water-soluble fertiliser, using full strength for garden plants once a month and diluted in half for container plants every two weeks. Only fertilise the plant during spring and summer months.

Propagation: Propagate Brunfelsia pauciflora in spring when tip cuttings of new growth are available. Dip cutting 8-13cm (3-5 inch) long in hormone rooting powder and plant it in an 8cm (3 inch) pot containing a moistened equal-parts mixture of peat moss and coarse sand or perlite. Place the cutting in a plastic bag or propagating case and stand it in bright filtered light. When new growth is produced (in four to six weeks), uncover the young plant, begin moderate watering and apply standard liquid fertiliser every two weeks. About four months after the start of propagation, move the new Brunfelsia pauciflora plants into standard potting mixture and treat it as a mature plant.

Pale or yellow leaves result from potting mixture that is not acid enough.
Treatment: Repot the plant in potting mixture that contains some peat and add some iron sulphate to the water when watering. Another way of ensuring healthy deep-green foliage is to sprinkle a handful of nitrogenrich fertilizer granules around the root zones and to water it in immediately thereafter. Do not overdo this treatment at the expense of potassium-rich fertilizer, though, otherwise the plant will have gorgeous foliage but the production of flowers will be diminished.

Weak growth is a sign of aphids, which suck the sap of the plant.
Treatment: Wash them off with a gentle stream of tepid water.

Fine webbing at leaf axils and under the leaves is made by the red spider mite, which thrives in dry conditions.
Treatment: Raise the humidity around the plant by mist spraying and standing the pot on a tray of moist pebbles. Serious infestations should be treated with a suitable insecticide.

Mealy bugs and whitefly may infest the  Brunfelsia pauciflora plants.
Treatment: Apply sprays of suitable insecticides.

Can get thrips when plants are grown under glass.
Treatment: Although thrips are susceptible to insecticides, their control is difficult as they are capable of flight and they may hide inside the buds and other floral structures and out of the reach of the insecticides. Hence, multiple sprayings may be needed with severe infestation.

Recommended varieties:
Brunfelsia pauciflora cv. ‘Floribunda’ is a profusely flowering miniature kind.

Brunfelsia pauciflora cv. ‘Macrantha’ has flowers measuring up to 8cm (3 inch) across.

Companion plants: Brunfelsia pauciflora makes a good companion to Rhododendron (Azaleas) and Fuchsia species (Fuchsias). Grow it with Cineraria (Cinerarias) or Muscari species (Grape hyacinths) placed at its feet to enhance the colour of its blooms. Canna, Tibouchina, Lantana speacies are good companions for these colourful shrubs, highlighting each other.

Toxicity: Brunfelsia pauciflora plant is toxic, especially the fruit. The plants are known to be poisonous to domestic animals such as cats, dogs and horses due to their brunfelsamidine content.
Also caution should be taken due to its strongly scented flowers, reason for which Brunfelsia pauciflora is not the ideal plant for hay-fever sufferers.

Usage and display:  With pruning, Brunfelsia pauciflora can be kept to a manageable 60-90cm (2-3 feet) size and makes an excellent indoor plant. In mild climates, Brunfelsia pauciflora makes an attractive specimen shrub or use it in a mixed hedge or foundation planting. Can be used for creating perfumed spots in gardens, designing tropical gardens and hedge or screen seaside gardens or as a specimen plant. It is great for privacy screening on decks or blocking unsightly views.


Foliage – green
Features – flowers, frangrance
Shape – bushy
Height indoors: 60-90cm (24-36 inch)
Height outdoors: 3m (10 feet)
Spread outdoors: 3.6m (12 feet)

Watering in rest period – sparingly
Watering in active growth period – moderately
Light – bright
Temperature in rest period – min 10°C max 13°C (50-55°F)
Temperature in active growth period – min 16°C max 24°C (61-75°F)
Humidity – high

Hardiness zone: 9-11

Brunfelsia paucifloraBrunfelsia paucifloraBrunfelsia paucifloraBrunfelsia paucifloraBrunfelsia pauciflora

Flowering Plants, Garden Plants, Indoor Plants, Shrubs , , , , , , ,

Epiphyllum anguliger

Common name: Fishbone Cactus, Moon Cactus, Queen of the Night, Rickrack Cactus, Rick-Rack Orchid Cactus

Family: Cactaceae

Synonymous: Phyllocactus anguliger
Phyllocactus serratus
Phyllocactus angularis
Phyllocactus darrahii
Epiphyllum darrahii
Epiphyllum beahmii
Epiphyllum gertrudianum
Epiphyllum anguliger var. darrahii
Epiphyllum anguliger var. pillocarpa
Epiphyllum anguliger var. pulocarpa

Epiphyllum anguliger

Epiphyllum anguliger

Distribution and habitat: Epiphyllum anguliger is an epiphytic cactus species in evergreen oak forests. It is endemic to Mexico, where it is distributed in the States of Guerrero, Jalisco, Nayarit and Oaxaca at elevations of 1100 to 1800m (3600-5900 feet). Most grow in trees where they tuck their roots into pockets of decaying vegetable matter which settle into nooks and crannies of tree branches. They share their habitat with orchids, bromeliads, ferns and mosses. Their tropical environment provides them with lots of warmth and high humidity and most important… shading from full sun.

Description: Stems profusely branched, primary stems terete at base, often woody, apical part and secondary stems flat and rather succulent, 20–30cm (8-12 inch) long, 3–5cm (1-2 inch) wide, deeply lobed, often to near midrib, the lobes rectangular to obtuse or rounded; areoles small nude or with 1-2 white bristles; epidermis green, smooth. Flowers 6–20cm (2-8 inch) long, 6–7cm (2-3 inch) wide, nocturnal, strongly sweet-scented; pericarpel with podarium; receptacle 8–16cm (3-6 inch) long, 4mm thick, pale yellow, greenish or pinkish, bracteoles few, minute, linear and green, adpressed; outer tepals 10, linear to linear-lanceolate, acute, spreading or reflexed, 4–5cm (2 inch) long, lemon yellow to brownish yellow; inner tepals lanceolate to ovate, acute or acuminate, white, sometimes toothed, as long as outer tepals; stamens in two rows, white, erect to subdeclinate, nearly as long as tepals; style longer than inner tepals, white; stigma lobes 8-11, linear. Fruit ovoid, brownish, greenish or yellowish, 3–4cm (1.5 inch) thick.
Epiphyllum anguliger is a true species and the leaf-like stems are shorter than most, with deep broad notches, giving the plant a very fishbone-like appearance. Flowering generally occur in late summer or fall. Up to six flowers may open at once and each last about a day.

Epiphyllum anguliger is a very variable species but rather distinct and recognition of sub-specific taxa seems unnecessary.

Houseplant care: The species is commonly grown as an ornamental for its beautiful, fragrant flowers in the fall. Epiphyllum anguliger is an easily cultivated, fast growing epiphyte.

Light: Give Epiphyllum anguliger medium light. If possible, keep them in a shady spot outdoors in summer.

Temperatures: These plants require warmth with high humidity. They should be kept at 16–25°C (61–77°F), it may drop to 10–15°C (50–59°F) for shorter periods. Mist spray them daily and stand the pots on trays or saucers of moist pebbles.

Watering: During spring and summer water plentifully, keeping the potting mixture thoroughly moist . Give plants a brief rest at the end of each flowering period by watering only enough during the next two or three weeks to prevent the potting mixture from drying out. At all other times water moderately, allowing the top centimetre (0.4 inch) or so of the potting mixture dry out completely between waterings.
Epiphyllum anguliger stems do not signal a lack of water by shrivelling as some cacti do. Cuttings of stems left in a dry place have been known to root perfectly well after as long as a year without being potted up.

Feeding: After flower buds start to form, apply a tomato-type fertiliser every two weeks. Stop feeding when most buds are open.

Potting and repotting: Use a potting mixture composed of one part of coarse sand and perlite to three of peat-based mixture. Move the plants into slightly larger pots every spring until they reach the 13 or 15cm (5-6 inch) pot size. Thereafter, simply shake off the old potting mixture from the roots and replace plants in their pots, which have been cleaned. Add fresh potting mixture as necessary. Epiphyllum anguliger which grow taller than 20cm (8 inch) will usually need to be staked unless they are permitted to trail for decorative effect in hanging baskets.

Propagation: Propagate from cuttings taken in spring or summer. Remove a 13 or 15cm (5-6 inch) long branch and allow it to dry for a day before inserting it about 2cm (0.8 inch) deep in a 10cm (4 inch) pot of the potting mixture recommended for mature plants. Several such cuttings are usually planted around the rim of a single pot.
Keep the potting mixture slightly moist until the cuttings root in two to three weeks. After rooting they may be treated as mature plants. They should flower within two years.
Propagation from seed is only really useful when starting to build up a collection of Epiphyllum. When young, Epiphyllum anguliger seedlings are cylindrical and covered with whitish spines. They will not flower until this stage has been passed and the mature flattened stems are produced. When the flattened stems appear, it is thought to be a good idea to take them as cuttings because it is said they will flower earlier than if left on the seedling roots.

Epiphyllums are susceptible to various bacterial and fungal pathogens that cause black rot diseases. The bacterium Erwinia cacticida can take advantage of the excessively moist soil and delicate root system of the Epiphyllum to create what is known as black rot disease. It acts in much the same way as any pathogen, infecting the cells of the cactus’s roots to procreate, using it as food and spreading until nothing remains of the root structure but a wet, black mushy mass. Symptoms above ground include a yellowing of the upper stems and lateral brown striations rising from the trunk, as the fungi sends tendrils up the Epiphyllum’s vascular system.
Treatment: If caught early enough, affected portions of the root system can be cut away. Otherwise, there is no treatment. These plants should be watered only when the soil is dry to the touch. Drafts and chills should be avoided.

These plants are also vulnerable to fungal leaf spot. Fungi of the Phyllosticta genus have been known to infect the stems of Epiphyllums. They occur during spring rains and attack the stems. The first symptom is the appearance of one or more brown spots or lesions with raised centres on the Epiphyllum’s stems. These lesions can bore all the way through to the opposite side of the stem in the worst cases, but are not fatal. They create scar patterns and raised ridges which will never heal.
Treatment: Infected plant tissue should be removed and destroyed before the disease spreads to the other plants. Fungicides are ineffective against this kind of fungi. Adequate ventilation reduces the risk the pathogens spreading.

Corky scab is also known as edema and, while a disease, it is not infectious. Symptoms are limited to the appearance of bumps, blisters, warts or scabs with a distinct cork-like, woody texture. They can occur on any part of the epiphyllum. Possible causes include reaction to biting insects, injury from sand or dirt particles carried by the wind and the accumulation of water outside the cactus’ vascular system.
Treatment: Moderate watering schedule should help in treating corky scabs.

Potential pest problems include mealy bugs, slugs, aphids, mites andscale.
Treatment: Use an adequate insecticides to combat the pests.

Epiphyllum plants frequently turn a yellowish colour when they receive too much sunlight.
Treatment: If moved to a shadier place they should regain their green colour in time. A bad sunburn may not kill the plant but will scar the stems permanently.

A stem will wither when it has literally almost flowered itself to death.
Treatment: After a rest period and attention to watering, the stem may return to normal. If it does not, remove it.

If stems die back it is a sign that either the root system is damaged or the plant is not getting enough food either from spent soil or from lack of proper fertilizing.

Availability: Epiphyllum anguliger cacti will live for many years and grow fairly large.

Uses and display: Grow Epiphyllum anguliger cacti in heavy pots to prevent them from overbalance or plant them in hanging baskets. They are ideally suited to window-sill conditions or shaded balconies or patios. Their blossoms are unbelievably beautiful and perfumed. The giant flower unfurl at night time, spreading their fragrance around as they glow in the moonlight like some strange sea-creatures. A short life but a joyful one – for they are dead by down.


Foliage – green
Features – flowers
Shape – weeping plant
Height: 90-120cm (36-48 inch)

Watering in rest period – moderately
Watering in active growth period – plentifully
Light – medium
Temperature in rest period – min 16°C max 24°C (61-75°F)
Temperature in active growth period – min 18°C max 27°C (64-81°F)
Humidity – high

Hardiness zone: 10b-11

Epiphyllum anguliger Epiphyllum anguligerEpiphyllum anguliger flower Epiphyllum anguliger fruit Epiphyllum anguliger stems Epiphyllum anguliger

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